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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Effect of Exit Pressure Pulsation on the Performance and Stability Limit of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Maria Esperanza Barrera-Medrano

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2BX, UK
e-mail: m.barrera-medrano@imperial.ac.uk

Peter Newton

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2BX, UK
e-mail: peter.newton03@imperial.ac.uk

Ricardo Martinez-Botas

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2BX, UK
e-mail: r.botas@imperial.ac.uk

Srithar Rajoo

Mem. ASME
UTM Centre for Low Carbon Transport,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Johor 81310, Malaysia
e-mail: srithar@fkm.utm.my

Isao Tomita

Mem. ASME
Research and Innovation Development Centre,
Technology and Innovation Headquarters,
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.,
Nagasaki 815-0392, Japan
e-mail: isao_tomita@mhie.com

Seiichi Ibaraki

Mem. ASME
Research and Innovation Development Centre,
Technology and Innovation Headquarters,
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd.,
Nagasaki 815-0392, Japan
e-mail: seiichi_ibaraki@mhi.co.jp

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 26, 2016; final manuscript received August 15, 2016; published online December 21, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(5), 052601 (Dec 21, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1366; doi: 10.1115/1.4034689 History: Received July 26, 2016; Revised August 15, 2016

It is well known that compressor surge imposes a significant limit on the flow range of a turbocharged internal combustion engine. The centrifugal compressor is commonly placed upstream of the inlet manifold, and hence, it is exposed to the intermittent flow regime of the inlet valves. Surge phenomena have been well studied over the past decades, and there still remains limited information with regard to the unsteady impact caused by the inlet valves. This study presents an experimental evaluation of such a situation. Engine representative pulses are created by a downstream system comprising a large volume, two rotating valves, a throttle valve, and the corresponding pipe network. Different pulsation levels are characterized by means of their frequency and the corresponding amplitude at the compressor inlet. The stability limit of the system under study is evaluated with reference to the parameter B proposed by Greitzer (1976, “Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison With Theory,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 199–211; 1976, “Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 190–198). B describes the dynamics of the compression system in terms of volume, area, equivalent length, and compressor tip speed as well as the Helmholtz frequency of the system. For a given compressor, as B goes beyond a critical value, the system will exhibit surge as the result of the flow instability progression. The reduced frequency analysis shows that the scroll diffuser operates in an unsteady regime, while the impeller is nearly quasi-steady. In the vicinity of the surge point, under a pulsating flow, the instantaneous operation of the compressor showed significant excursions into the unstable side of the surge line. Furthermore, it has been found that the presence of a volume in the system has the greatest effect on the surge margin of the compressor under the unsteady conditions.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Compression system under study

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Fig. 2

Pulsating flow device designed at Imperial College London: (A) rotary valve 1—V1, (B) variable plenum volume, and (C) rotary valve 2—V2

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Fig. 3

Variable plenum volume: Vmin (left) and Vmax (right)

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Fig. 4

Rotary valves: fully closed (left) and fully open (right) position

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Fig. 5

Sensor locations on the compressor experimental facility

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Fig. 6

Pulse comparison between a real engine and the generated pulse

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Fig. 7

Equivalent compression system [4,5]

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Fig. 8

Compression system under study

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Fig. 9

Compressor performance map: operating points under study

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Fig. 10

Surge limit comparison between steady and pulsating condition for the reference condition under study

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Fig. 11

Behavior of operating point under pulsating condition: 4—large flow

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Fig. 12

Behavior of operating point under pulsating condition: 1—peak efficiency

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Fig. 13

Behavior of operating point under pulsating condition: 2—peak pressure

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Fig. 14

Behavior of operating point under pulsating condition: 3—surge/near surge

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Fig. 15

Frequency effect on the surge margin

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Fig. 16

Pulse location effect on the surge margin

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Fig. 17

Volume effect on the surge margin: steady condition

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Fig. 18

Volume effect on the surge margin: unsteady (pulsating) condition

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