0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Externally Fired Micro-Gas Turbine and Organic Rankine Cycle Bottoming Cycle: Optimal Biomass/Natural Gas Combined Heat and Power Generation Configuration for Residential Energy Demand

[+] Author and Article Information
Sergio Mario Camporeale

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: camporeale@poliba.it

Patrizia Domenica Ciliberti

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: patriziadomenica.ciliberti@poliba.it

Bernardo Fortunato

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: fortunato@poliba.it

Marco Torresi

Dipartimento di Meccanica,
Matematica e Management—DMMM,
Politecnico di Bari,
Via Re David, 200,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: marco.torresi@poliba.it

Antonio Marco Pantaleo

Dipartimento DISAAT,
Università degli Studi di Bari,
Via Amendola 165/A,
Bari 70125, Italy
e-mail: antonio.pantaleo@uniba.it

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 6, 2016; final manuscript received August 29, 2016; published online November 8, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(4), 041401 (Nov 08, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1127; doi: 10.1115/1.4034721 History: Received April 06, 2016; Revised August 29, 2016

Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants present lower electric efficiency in comparison to large scale ones, and this is particularly true when biomass fuels are used. In most cases, the use of both heat and electricity to serve on-site energy demand is a key issue to achieve acceptable global energy efficiency and investment profitability. However, the heat demand follows a typical daily and seasonal pattern and is influenced by climatic conditions, in particular in the case of residential and tertiary end users. During low heat demand periods, a lot of heat produced by the CHP plant is discharged. In order to increase the electric conversion efficiency of small-scale micro-gas turbine for heat and power cogeneration, a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system can be coupled to the cycle, however, this option reduces the temperature and the amount of cogenerated heat available to the thermal load. In this perspective, the paper presents the results of a thermo-economic analysis of small-scale CHP plants composed of a micro-gas turbine (MGT) and a bottoming ORC, serving a typical residential energy demand. For the topping cycle, three different configurations are examined: (1) a simple recuperative micro-gas turbine fueled by natural gas (NG); (2) a dual fuel externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) cycle, fueled by biomass and natural gas (50% share of energy input) (DF); and (3) an externally fired gas turbine (EFGT) with direct combustion of biomass (B). The bottoming ORC is a simple saturated cycle with regeneration and no superheating. The ORC cycle and the fluid selection are optimized on the basis of the available exhaust gas temperature at the turbine exit. The research assesses the influence of the thermal energy demand typology (residential demand with cold, mild, and hot climate conditions) and CHP plant operational strategies (baseload versus heat-driven versus electricity-driven operation mode) on the global energy efficiency and profitability of the following three configurations: (A) MGT with cogeneration; (B) MGT+ ORC without cogeneration; and (C) MGT+ORC with cogeneration. In all cases, a back-up boiler is assumed to match the heat demand of the load (fed by natural gas or biomass). The research explores the profitability of bottoming ORC in view of the following trade-offs: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost of biomass input with respect to natural gas; (ii) higher efficiency but higher costs and reduced heat available for cogeneration with the bottoming ORC; and (iii) higher primary energy savings and revenues from feed-in tariff available for biomass electricity fed into the grid.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

European Union, 2009, “ Decision 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009,” OJL, 140, pp. 136–148.
European Union, 2009, “ Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009,” OJL, 140, pp. 16–62.
Franco, A. , and Giannini, N. , 2005, “ Perspectives for the Use of Biomass as Fuel in Combined Cycle Power Plants,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 44(2), pp. 163–177. [CrossRef]
Pantaleo, A. , Camporeale, S. , and Shah, N. , 2013, “ Thermo-Economic Assessment of Externally Fired Micro Gas Turbine Fired by Natural Gas and Biomass: Applications in Italy,” Energy Convers. Manage., 75, pp. 202–213. [CrossRef]
Fortunato, B. , Camporeale, S. M. , and Torresi, M. , 2013, “ A Gas-Steam Combined Cycle Powered by Syngas Derived From Biomass,” Procedia Comput. Sci., 19, pp. 736–745. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , Yogi Goswami, D. , Stefanakos, E. K. , 2010, “ A Review of Thermodynamic Cycles and Working Fluids for the Conversion of Low-Grade Heat,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14(9), pp. 3059–3067. [CrossRef]
David, G. , Michel, F. , and Sanchez, L. , 2011, “ Waste Heat Recovery Projects Using Organic Rankine Cycle Technology—Examples of Biogas Engines and Steel Mills Applications,” World Engineer's Convention ( WEC 2011), Sept. 4–9, Geneva, Switzerland.
Invernizzi, C. M. , Iora, P. , and Sandrini, R. , 2011, “ Biomass Combined Cycles Based on Externally Fired Gas Turbines and Organic Rankine Expanders,” J. Power Energy, 225(8), pp. 1066–1075. [CrossRef]
Kusterer, K. , Braun, R. , and Bohn, D. , “ Organic Rankine Cycle Working Fluid Selection and Performance Analysis for Combined Application With a 2 MW Class Industrial Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25439.
Pantaleo, A. , Camporeale, S. , and Shah, N. , 2014, “ Natural Gas—Biomass Dual Fuelled Microturbines: Comparison of Operating Strategies in the Italian Residential Sector,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 71(2), pp. 686–696. [CrossRef]
Camporeale, S. , Turi, F. , Torresi, M. , Fortunato, B. , Pantaleo, A. , and Pellerano, A. , 2015, “ Part Load Performances and Operating Strategies of a Natural Gas-Biomass Dual Fuelled Microturbine for CHP Operation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(12), p. 121401. [CrossRef]
Pantaleo, A. , Shah, N. , and Keirstead, J. , 2013, Bioenergy and Other Renewables in Urban Energy Systems () in Urban Energy Systems—An Integrated Approach, eds., J Keirstead and N Shah, Routledge, NY.
Al-Sulaiman, F. A. , Dincer, I. , and Hamdullahpur, F. , 2013, “ Thermoeconomic Optimization of Three Trigeneration Systems Using Organic Rankine Cycles: Part I—Formulations,” Energy Convers. Manage., 69, pp. 199–208. [CrossRef]
Galanti, L. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2010, “ Thermoeconomic Analysis of Micro Gas Turbine Design in the Range 25–500 kWe,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22351.
Ferreira, A. C. M. , Nunes, M. L. , Teixeira, S. F. C. F. , Leão, C. P. , Silva, Â. M. , Teixeira, J. C. F. , and Martins, L. S. B. , 2012, “ An Economic Perspective on the Optimisation of a Small-Scale Cogeneration System for the Portuguese Scenario,” Energy, 45(1), pp. 436–444. [CrossRef]
Pantaleo, A. , Candelise, C. , Bauen, A. , and Shah, N. , 2014, “ ESCO Business Models for Biomass Heating and CHP: Case Studies in Italy,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 30, pp. 237–253. [CrossRef]
Ministry Decree 5-09-2011 on Incentives for High Efficiency Cogeneration in Italy (in Italian), http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2011/09/19/11A12047/sg
Ministry Decree 6-07-2012 on the Reform of the Supporting Mechanism for Renewable Electricity in Italy (in Italian), http://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2012/07/10/12A07628/sg
Rosa do Nascimento, M. A. , de Oliveira Rodrigues, L. , Cruz dos Santos, E. , Batista Gomes, E. E. , Goulart Dias, F. L. , Gutiérrez Velásques, E. I. , and Miranda Carrillo, R. A. , 2013, “Micro Gas Turbine Engine: A Review,” Progress in Gas Turbine Performance, E. Benini, ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.
Hamilton, S. L. , 2003, The Handbook of Microturbine Generators, PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, OK.
Obernberger, I. , 1998, “ Decentralized Biomass Combustion: State of the Art and future Development,” Biomass Bioenergy, 14(1), pp. 33–57. [CrossRef]
Riccio, G. , and Chiaramonti, D. , 2009, “ Design and Simulation of a Small Polygeneration Plant Cofiring Biomass and Natural Gas in a Dual Combustion Micro Gas Turbine (BIO_MGT),” Biomass Bioenergy., 33(11), pp. 1520–1531. [CrossRef]
Yan, J. , and Eidensten, L. , 2000, “ Status and Perspective of Externally Fired Gas Turbines,” J. Propul. Power, 16(4), pp. 572–576.
Ferreira, S. B. , and Pilidis, P. , 2001, “ Comparison of Externally Fired and Internal Combustion Gas Turbines Using Biomass Fuel,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 123(4), pp. 291–296. [CrossRef]
Rossetti, A. , Armanasco, F. , and Lucchini, A. , 2012, “ Analisi tecnico economica di impianti turbogas di piccola—media taglia con combustione di biomassa e combustibili fossili,” (In Italian), Ricera sul Sistema Energetico- RSE S.p.A., Milan, Italy, accessed on Jan. 3, 2015, http://doc.rse-web.it/doc/doc-sfoglia/12000779-314716/12000779-314716.html
Knoef, H. , 1998, “ The Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine for Rural Electricity Production From Biomass,” 3rd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems, Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 12–14, Paper No. 182.
Soltani, S. , Mahmoudi, S. M. S. , Yari, M. , and Rosen, M. A. , 2013, “ Thermodynamic Analyses of an Externally Fired Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Integrated With a Biomass Gasification Plant,” Energy Convers. Manage., 70, pp. 107–115. [CrossRef]
Evans, R. L. , and Zaradic, A. M. , 1996, “ Optimization of a Wood-Waste-Fuelled Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Cogeneration Plant,” Bioresour. Technol., 57(2), pp. 117–126. [CrossRef]
Cocco, D. , Deiana, P. , and Cau, G. , 2006, “ Performance Evaluation of Small Size Externally Fired Gas Turbine (EFGT) Power Plants Integrated With Direct Biomass Dryers,” Energy, 31(10–11), pp. 1459–1471. [CrossRef]
Kautz, M. , and Hansen, U. , 2007, “ The Externally-Fired Gas-Turbine (EFGT-Cycle) for Decentralized Use of Biomass,” Appl. Energy, 84(7–8), pp. 795–805. [CrossRef]
Riccio, G. , Martelli, F. , and Maltagliati, S. , “ Study of an External Fired Gas Turbine Power Plant Fed by Solid Fuel,” ASME Paper No. 0015-GT-2000.
He, C. , Liu, C. , Gao, H. , Xie, H. , Li, Y. , Wu, S. , and Xu, J. , 2012, “ The Optimal Evaporation Temperature and Working Fluids for Subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle,” Energy, 38(1), pp. 136–143. [CrossRef]
Ansaldo Energia, “ AE-T100 Micro Turbine, Natural Gas, DATA SHEET,” Ansaldo Energia, Genova, Italy, accessed, Jan. 3, 2015, http://www.ansaldoenergia.com/easyUp/file/ae-t100_micro_turbine_natural_gas_sheet_englis.pdf
Horlock, J. H. , 1992, Combined Power Plants, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.
Asimptote, “ Cycle Tempo,” Asimptote, Delft, The Netherlands, accessed, Jan. 3, 2015, http://www.asimptote.nl/software/cycle-tempo/
Tidball, R. , Bluestein, J. , Rodriguez, N. , and Knoke, S. , 2010, “ Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No. NREL/SR-6A20-48595.
Autorità per l'Energia Elettrica il Gas e il Sistema Idrico (AEEGSI), “ Condizioni economiche per i clienti del mercato tutelato,” (In Italian), accessed, Oct. 2013, http://www.autorita.energia.it/it/dati/condec.htm
General Electric, “ Performance/Heat Balance Software for Power Plant Simulation,” accessed, Jan, 3, 2015, https://getotalplant.com/GateCycle/docs/GateCycle/index.html
Arvay, P. , Muller, M. R. , and Ramdeen, V. , 2011, “ Economic Implementation of the Organic Rankine Cycle in Industry,” ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry, Niagra Falls, NY, July 26–29, ACEEE, Paper No. 20045.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scheme of the microturbine for CHP generation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Scheme of the MGT-ORC combined cycle for CHP generation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Dual fuel natural gas and biomass fired cycle, adopted as topping cycle (screenshot from Gate Cycle®)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

T-S diagram of the combined cycle composed of a dual fuel EFGT and a bottoming ORC saturated and recuperative cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Cumulated thermal and electric load for the aggregate residential energy demand assumed for the simulations (cold climate area)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of the CHP + back-up boiler system. The bottom configuration is assumed for case B (100% biomass fuel, electricity totally fed into the grid), while the upper one is referred to cases NG and DF.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Annual CHP efficiency (η¯CHP) for the case studies A (MGT + CHP), B (MGT + ORC), and C (MGT + ORC + CHP) at different input fuels (NG: only natural gas; DF: dual fuel of biomass and natural gas; and B: only biomass); CHP operating range is assumed to be 50–100% of rated electric power. Operating strategies: BL (baseload), HD (heat driven), and electricity driven (ED); and the cold, mild, and hot climate conditions.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Fossil primary energy saving (FPES, MWh/yr) for the three system configurations and fuel inputs; baseload operating strategy and equivalent heat demand of 1600 h/y (50–80 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

IRR of the investments (including CHP plant and back-up boiler) for the case studies A–C, different input fuels, operating strategies, and climate conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

NPV of the investments (including CHP plant and back-up boiler) for the case studies A–C, different input fuels, operating strategies, and climate conditions

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In