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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Coal, Biomass, and Alternative Fuels

Transient Performance Analysis of an Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Low-Calorific Fuels

[+] Author and Article Information
Vrishika Singh

OPRA Turbines B.V.,
Hengelo 7554TS, The Netherlands
e-mail: v.singh@opra.nl

Lars-Uno Axelsson

OPRA Turbines B.V.,
Hengelo 7554TS, The Netherlands
e-mail: l.axelsson@opra.nl

W.P.J. Visser

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2629HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: w.p.j.visser@tudelft.nl

Contributed by the Coal, Biomass and Alternate Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 17, 2016; final manuscript received August 25, 2016; published online November 22, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(5), 051401 (Nov 22, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1345; doi: 10.1115/1.4034942 History: Received July 17, 2016; Revised August 25, 2016

The demand for more environmentally friendly and economic power production has led to an increasing interest to utilize alternative fuels. In the past, several investigations focusing on the effect of low-calorific fuels on the combustion process and steady-state performance have been published. However, it is also important to consider the transient behavior of the gas turbine when operating on nonconventional fuels. The alternative fuels contain very often a large amount of dilutants resulting in a low energy density. Therefore, a higher fuel flow rate is required, which can impact the dynamic behavior of the gas turbine. This paper will present an investigation of the transient behavior of the all-radial OP16 gas turbine. The OP16 is an industrial gas turbine rated at 1.9 MW, which has the capability to burn a wide range of fuels including ultra-low-calorific gaseous fuels. The transient behavior is simulated using the commercial software GSP including the recently added thermal network modeling functionality. The steady-state and transient performance model is thoroughly validated using real engine test data. The developed model is used to simulate and analyze the physical behavior of the gas turbine when performing load sheds. From the simulations, it is found that the energy density of the fuel has a noticeable effect on the rotor over-speed and must be considered when designing the fuel control.

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References

Diango, A. , Périlhon, C. , Danho, E. , and Descombes, G. , 2011, “ Influence of Heat Transfer on Gas Turbine Performance,” Advances in Gas Turbine Technology, E. Benini , ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 211–236.
Beran, M. , and Axelsson, L. , 2014, “ Development and Experimental Investigation of a Tubular Combustor for Pyrolysis Oil Burning,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbine Power, 137(3), p. 031508. [CrossRef]
Walsh, P. P. , and Fletcher, P. , 1998, Gas Turbine Performance, Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
Visser, W. P. J. , 2015, “ Generic Analysis Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Performance: The Development of the Gas Turbine Simulation Program GSP,” Ph.D. dissertation, TU-Delft, Delft, Netherlands.
Kurzke, J. , 2005, “ How to Create a Performance Model of a Gas Turbine From a Limited Amount of Information,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68536.
Rodgers, C. , 2003, “ Some Effects of Size on the Performances of Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38027.
Visser, W. P. J. , and Dountchev, I. D. , 2015, “ Modeling Thermal Effects on Performance of Small Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42744.
RTO Applied Vehicle Technology Panel Task Group AVT-018, 2002, “ Performance Prediction and Simulation of Gas Turbine Engine Operation,” NATO, Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France, Paper ADA403085.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cutout 3D view of the OP16 engine. (Courtesy of OPRA Turbines B.V., Hengelo, The Netherlands.)

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Fig. 2

Variation load during OP16 engine loading

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Fig. 3

OP16 model configuration in GSP

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Fig. 4

Simplified depiction of compressor discharge flow path in OP16

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Fig. 5

Thermal network of OP16 combustor in GSP

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Fig. 6

Shaft power model input compared to measured shaft power

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Fig. 7

Fuel flow model input compared to measured fuel flow

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Fig. 8

Variation in simulated rotor speed with respect to measured data

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Fig. 9

Variation in simulated compressor discharge temperature with respect to measured data

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Fig. 10

Variation in simulated exhaust gas temperature with respect to measured data

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Fig. 11

Variation in simulated compressor discharge pressure with respect to measured data

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Fig. 12

Variation in rotor speed during load shed for different fuel LHVs

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Fig. 13

Variation in rotor over-speed during load shed for different fuel valve closing times

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Fig. 14

Maximum allowable fuel valve closing time to maintain maximum 5% rotor over-speed for different LHV's

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Fig. 15

Variation in peak rotor speed with fuel LHV during load shed for different combustor volumes

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