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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effect of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Combustion and Emissions of a Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Yan Chang

Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: yanchang@umich.edu

Brandon Mendrea, Jeff Sterniak

Robert Bosch LLC,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331

Stanislav V. Bohac

Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 19, 2016; final manuscript received August 29, 2016; published online December 1, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(5), 051501 (Dec 01, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4034966 History: Received July 19, 2016; Revised August 29, 2016

Spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) offers more practical combustion phasing control and a lower pressure rise rate than homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and improved thermal efficiency and lower NOx emissions than spark ignition (SI) combustion. Any practical passenger car engine, including one that uses SACI in part of its operating range, must be robust to changes in ambient conditions. This study investigates the effects of ambient temperature and humidity on stoichiometric SACI combustion and emissions. It is shown that at the medium speed and load SACI test point selected for this study, increasing ambient air temperature from 20 °C to 41 °C advances combustion phasing, increases maximum pressure rise rate, causes a larger fraction of the charge to be consumed by auto-ignition (and a smaller fraction by flame propagation), and increases NOx. Increasing ambient humidity from 32% to 60% retards combustion phasing, reduces maximum pressure rise rate, increases coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), reduces NOx, and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). These results show that successful implementation of SACI combustion in real-world driving requires a control strategy that compensates for changes in ambient temperature and humidity.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Heat release rate profiles as a function of temperature

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Fig. 2

Mass fraction burned profiles and auto-ignition points as a function of temperature

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Fig. 3

CA50 and flame propagation fraction as a function of temperature

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Fig. 4

BMEP and maximum value of pressure rise rate as a function of temperature

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Fig. 5

External EGR and internal EGR as a function of temperature

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Fig. 6

COV and BSFC as a function of temperature

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Fig. 7

CO and NOx emission as a function of temperature

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Fig. 8

NO and NO2 emission as a function of temperature

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Fig. 9

Hydrocarbon emission as a function of temperature

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Fig. 10

Heat release rate profiles as a function of humidity

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Fig. 11

Mass fraction burned profiles and auto-ignition points as a function of humidity

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Fig. 12

CO and NOx emission as a function of humidity

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Fig. 13

NO and NO2 emission as a function of humidity

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Fig. 14

Hydrocarbon emission as a function of humidity

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Fig. 15

CA50 for HCCI and SACI as a function of temperature

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Fig. 16

CA50 for HCCI and SACI as a function of humidity

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Fig. 17

Brake-specific CO for HCCI, SACI, and SI as a function of temperature

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Fig. 18

Brake-specific NOx for HCCI, SACI, and SI as a function of temperature

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Fig. 19

Brake-specific HC for HCCI, SACI, and SI as a function of temperature

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