0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effect of Ambient Temperature and Humidity on Combustion and Emissions of a Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Yan Chang

Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: yanchang@umich.edu

Brandon Mendrea, Jeff Sterniak

Robert Bosch LLC,
Farmington Hills, MI 48331

Stanislav V. Bohac

Walter E. Lay Automotive Laboratory,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 19, 2016; final manuscript received August 29, 2016; published online December 1, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(5), 051501 (Dec 01, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4034966 History: Received July 19, 2016; Revised August 29, 2016

Spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) offers more practical combustion phasing control and a lower pressure rise rate than homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion and improved thermal efficiency and lower NOx emissions than spark ignition (SI) combustion. Any practical passenger car engine, including one that uses SACI in part of its operating range, must be robust to changes in ambient conditions. This study investigates the effects of ambient temperature and humidity on stoichiometric SACI combustion and emissions. It is shown that at the medium speed and load SACI test point selected for this study, increasing ambient air temperature from 20 °C to 41 °C advances combustion phasing, increases maximum pressure rise rate, causes a larger fraction of the charge to be consumed by auto-ignition (and a smaller fraction by flame propagation), and increases NOx. Increasing ambient humidity from 32% to 60% retards combustion phasing, reduces maximum pressure rise rate, increases coefficient of variation (COV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), reduces NOx, and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). These results show that successful implementation of SACI combustion in real-world driving requires a control strategy that compensates for changes in ambient temperature and humidity.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Cracknell, R. , Ariztegui, J. , Barnes, K. , Bessonette, P. , Cannella, W. , Douce, F. , Kelecom, B. , Kraft, H. , Lampreia, I. , Rickeard, D. J. , Savarese, M. C. , Williams, J. , and Rose, K. D. , 2008, “ Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency: A Literature Review of HCCI Combustion Concepts,” CONCAWE, Brussels, Belgium, Report No. 4/08.
Yao, M. , Zheng, Z. , and Liu, H. , 2009, “ Progress and Recent Trends in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 35(5), pp. 398–437. [CrossRef]
Stanglmaier, R. H. , and Roberts, C. E. , 1999, “ Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI): Benefits, Compromises, and Future Engine Applications,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3682.
Lavoie, G. , Ortiz-Soto, E. , Babajimopoulos, A. , Martz, J. B. , and Assanis, D. N. , 2012, “ Thermodynamic Sweet Spot for High-Efficiency, Dilute, Boosted Gasoline Engines,” Int. J. Engine Res., 14(3), pp. 260–278. [CrossRef]
Manofsky, L. , Vavra, J. , Assanis, D. N. , and Babajimopoulos, A. , 2011, “ Bridging the Gap Between HCCI and SI: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1179.
Lavoie, G. A. , Martz, J. , Wooldridge, M. , and Assanis, D. , 2010, “ A Multi-Mode Combustion Diagram for Spark Assisted Compression Ignition,” Combust. Flame, 157(6), pp. 1106–1110. [CrossRef]
Lindhjem, C. , Chan, L. , Pollack, L. , and Kite, C. , 2004, “ Applying Humidity and Temperature Corrections to On and Off-Road Mobile Source Emissions,” EPA 13th International Emission Inventory Conference: Working for Clean Air in Clearwater, Clearwater, FL, June 8–10.
Rakopoulos, C. D. , 1988, “ Ambient Temperature and Humidity Effects on the Performance and Nitric Oxide Emission of Spark Ignition Engined Vehicles in Athens/Greece,” Sol. Wind Technol., 5(3), pp. 315–320. [CrossRef]
Brown, W. J. , Gendernalik, S. A. , Kerley, R. V. , and Marsee, F. J. , 1970, “ Effect of Engine Intake-Air Moisture on Exhaust Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 700107.
Krause, S. R. , 1971, “ Effect of Engine Intake-Air Humidity, Temperature, and Pressure on Exhaust Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 710835.
Manos, M. J. , Bozek, J. W. , and Huls, T. A. , 1972, “ Effect of Laboratory Ambient Conditions on Exhaust Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 720124.
Larson, R. E. , 1989, “ Vehicle Emission Characteristics Under Cold Ambient Conditions,” SAE Paper No. 890021.
Yoon, S. H. , and Lee, C. S. , 2012, “ Effect of Undiluted Bioethanol on Combustion and Emissions Reduction in a SI Engine at Various Charge Air Conditions,” Fuel, 97, pp. 887–890. [CrossRef]
Jamriska, M. , Lorawska, L. , and Mergersen, K. , 2008, “ The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Size Segregated Traffic Exhaust Particle Emissions,” Atmos. Environ., 42(10), pp. 2369–2382. [CrossRef]
Andreae, M. M. , Cheng, W. K. , Kenney, T. , and Yang, J. , 2007, “ Effect of Air Temperature and Humidity on Gasoline HCCI Operating in the Negative-Valve-Overlap Mode,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0221.
Aroonsrisopon, T. , Foster, D. E. , Morikawa, T. , and Iida, M. , 2002, “ Comparison of HCCI Operating Ranges for Combinations of Intake Temperature, Engine Speed and Fuel Composition,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1924.
Persson, H. , Agrell, M. , Olsson, J. , Johansson, B. , and Ström, H. , 2004, “ The Effect of Intake Temperature on HCCI Operation Using Negative Valve Overlap,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0944.
Sjöberg, M. , and Dec, J. E. , 2004, “ An Investigation of the Relationship Between Measured Intake Temperature, BDC Temperature, and Combustion Phasing for Premixed and DI HCCI Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1900.
Mendrea, B. , Chang, Y. , Akkus, Y. Z. A. , Sterniak, J. , and Bohac, S. V. , 2015, “ Investigations of the Effect of Ambient Condition on SACI Combustion Range,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-0828.
Gamma Technologies, 2015, “ GT-SUITE: A Revolutionary MBSE Tool,” Gamma Technologies, Inc., Westmont, IL.
Woschni, G. A. , 1967, “ Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Paper No. 670931.
Persson, H. , Hultqvist, A. , Johansson, B. , and Remón, A. , 2007, “ Investigation of the Early Flame Development in Spark Assisted HCCI Combustion Using High Speed Chemiluminescence Imaging,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0212.
Ortiz-Soto, E. A. , Lavoie, G. A. , Martz, J. B. , Wooldridge, M. S. , and Assanis, D. N. , 2014, “ Enhanced Heat Release Analysis for Advanced Multi-Mode Combustion Engine Experiments,” Appl. Energy, 136, pp. 465–479. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Heat release rate profiles as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Mass fraction burned profiles and auto-ignition points as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

CA50 and flame propagation fraction as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

BMEP and maximum value of pressure rise rate as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

External EGR and internal EGR as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

COV and BSFC as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

CO and NOx emission as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

NO and NO2 emission as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Hydrocarbon emission as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Heat release rate profiles as a function of humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Mass fraction burned profiles and auto-ignition points as a function of humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

CO and NOx emission as a function of humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

NO and NO2 emission as a function of humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Hydrocarbon emission as a function of humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

CA50 for HCCI and SACI as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

CA50 for HCCI and SACI as a function of humidity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Brake-specific CO for HCCI, SACI, and SI as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Brake-specific NOx for HCCI, SACI, and SI as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Brake-specific HC for HCCI, SACI, and SI as a function of temperature

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In