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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Oil and Gas Applications

An Innovative Method for the Evaluation of Particle Deposition Accounting for Rotor/Stator Interaction

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicola Aldi, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina, Alessio Suman

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43121, Italy

Contributed by the Oil and Gas Applications Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 28, 2016; final manuscript received August 26, 2016; published online December 21, 2016. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(5), 052401 (Dec 21, 2016) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1369; doi: 10.1115/1.4034968 History: Received July 28, 2016; Revised August 26, 2016

Solid particle ingestion is one of the principal degradation mechanisms in the compressor and turbine sections of gas turbines. In particular, in industrial applications, the microparticles not captured by the air filtration system can cause deposits on blading and, consequently, result in a decrease in the compressor performance. This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations of the microparticle ingestion (0.15–1.50 μm) in a transonic axial compressor stage, carried out by means of a commercial computational fluid dynamic code. Particles of this size can follow the main air flow with relatively little slip, while being impacted by the flow turbulence. It is of great interest to the industry to determine which zones of the compressor blades are impacted by these small particles. Particle trajectory simulations use a stochastic Lagrangian tracking method that solves the equations of motion separately from the continuous phase. A particular computational strategy is adopted in order to take into account the presence of two subsequent annular cascades (rotor and stator) in the case of particle ingestion. The proposed strategy allows the evaluation of particle deposition in an axial compressor stage, thanks to its capability of accounting for rotor/stator interaction. NASA Stage 37 is used as a case study for the numerical investigation. The compressor stage numerical model and the discrete phase model are set up and validated against the experimental and numerical data available in the literature. The blade zones affected by the particle impact and the kinematic characteristics of the impact of micrometric and submicrometric particles with the blade surface are shown. Both blade zones affected by the particle impact and deposition are analyzed. The particle deposition is established by using the quantity called sticking probability, adopted from the literature. The sticking probability links the kinematic characteristics of particle impact on the blade with fouling phenomenon. The results show that microparticles tend to follow the flow by impacting at full span with a higher impact concentration on the pressure side of rotor blade and stator vane. Both the rotor blade and stator vane suction side are only affected by the impact of smaller particles (up to 1 μm). Particular fluid dynamic phenomena, such as separation, shock waves, and tip leakage vortex, strongly influence the impact location of the particles. The kinematic analysis shows a high tendency of particle adhesion on the suction side of the rotor blade, especially for particles with a diameter equal to 0.15 μm.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the adopted postprocess computational strategy

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Fig. 3

NASA stage 37 computational domain: (a) single passage model, (b) mesh on rotor blade surface, and (c) mesh on stator vane surface

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Fig. 4

Comparison between the experimental results (Exp.) [15] and CFD results (CFD)

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Fig. 5

Capture efficiency versus particle diameter for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 6

Particle impact distributions for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 7

Particle impact velocity for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 8

Particle impact angle for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 9

Trends of the ratio ηhit,SP>0.5 and ηhit superimposed for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 10

Particle deposition patterns for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 11

Qualitative comparison between the actual deposits on the rotor blade [23] and numerical results

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Fig. 12

Trends of the ratio ηhit,SP>0.5 for the coupled stator according to the spanwise subdivision of the stator vane

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Fig. 13

Spanwise subdivision (left side) and overall impact patterns

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Fig. 14

Particle normal impact velocity for the isolated rotor and stator

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Fig. 15

Particle tangential impact velocity for the isolated rotor and stator

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