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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

On the Transient Three-Dimensional Tribodynamics of Internal Combustion Engine Top Compression Ring

[+] Author and Article Information
C. Baker

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: christopher_baker@outlook.com

S. Theodossiades

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: S.Theodossiades@lboro.ac.uk

R. Rahmani

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: R.Rahmani@lboro.ac.uk

H. Rahnejat

Wolfson School of Mechanical, Electrical
and Manufacturing Engineering,
Loughborough University,
Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
e-mail: H.Rahnejat@lboro.ac.uk

B. Fitzsimons

Aston Martin Lagonda,
Gaydon,
Warwickshire CV35 0DB, UK
e-mail: Brian.Fitzsimons@astonmartin.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 15, 2016; final manuscript received October 12, 2016; published online January 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Stani Bohac.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(6), 062801 (Jan 24, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1220; doi: 10.1115/1.4035282 History: Received June 15, 2016; Revised October 12, 2016

There are increasing pressures upon the automotive industry to reduce harmful emissions as well as meeting the key objective of enhanced fuel efficiency, while improving or retaining the engine output power. The losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine can be divided into thermal and parasitic as well as due to gas leakage because of untoward compression ring motions. Frictional losses are particularly of concern at low engine speeds, assuming a greater share of the overall losses. Piston–cylinder system accounts for nearly half of all the frictional losses. Loss of sealing functionality of the ring pack can also contribute significantly to power losses as well as exacerbating harmful emissions. The dynamics of compression ring is inexorably linked to its tribological performance, a link which has not been made in many reported analyses. A fundamental understanding of the interplay between the top compression ring three-dimensional elastodynamic behavior, its sealing function and contribution to the overall frictional losses is long overdue. This paper provides a comprehensive integrated transient elastotribodynamic analysis of the compression ring to cylinder liner and its retaining piston groove lands' conjunctions, an approach not hitherto reported in the literature. The methodology presented aims to aid the piston ring design evaluation processes. Realistic engine running conditions are used which constitute international drive cycle testing conditions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Ring cross section exhibiting its out-of-plane motion [27]

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Fig. 2

Example of the out-of-plane ring mode shapes for a ring with free–free boundary conditions: (a) analytical method (f = 92.54 Hz) and (b) FEA model (f = 93.33 Hz)

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Fig. 3

Free-body diagram for a cross section of the top compression ring

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Fig. 4

Coupled tribodynamics model for the three-dimensional motion of the compression ring

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Fig. 5

Ring out-of-plane axial position throughout the engine cycle, alongside ring axial velocity and cylinder gas pressure (engine speed = 1500 rpm, lubricant temperature = 120 °C at full throttle)

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Fig. 6

Three-dimensional ring deformation at the point of maximum cylinder pressure, (engine speed = 1500 rpm, lubricant temperature = 120 °C at full throttle)

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Fig. 7

Total friction power loss for rigid, in-plane elastic and fully elastic models of the compression ring at 1000 rpm with lubricant temperature of 40 °C, part throttle

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Fig. 8

Ring out-of-plane axial position throughout the engine cycle, alongside ring axial velocity, and cylinder gas pressure (engine speed = 1000 rpm, lubricant temperature = 40 °C)

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Fig. 9

Three-dimensional ring deflection during the power stroke (engine speed = 1000 rpm, lubricant temperature = 40 °C, part throttle)

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Fig. 10

Total frictional power loss comparisons for a rigid ring, an in-plane elastic ring and a full dynamic one at 2000 rpm, with lubricant temperature of 40 °C (part throttle)

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Fig. 11

Ring out-of-plane axial position throughout the engine cycle, alongside ring axial velocity at 2000 rpm, with lubricant temperature of 40 °C

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Fig. 12

Friction power loss comparison for a rigid ring, an in-plane elastic ring and a fully dynamic ring at the engine speed of 2000 rpm with lubricant temperature of 120 °C (full-throttle)

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Fig. 14

Compression ring axial groove position and three-dimensional ring profiles within the piston groove (engine speed = 1500 rpm, lubricant temperature = 40 °C)

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Fig. 13

(a) Compression ring axial groove position and three-dimensional ring profiles within the piston groove and (b) ring velocity variation (engine speed = 1500 rpm, lubricant temperature = 40 °C)

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