The turbocharger is a significant noise source in large diesel engines, such as those used in container vessels. Its main noise source is the radial compressor, where improvements in silencers and turbocharger insulation have led to a considerable reduction of compressor inlet noise emission over the past few years. As a result, compressor outlet noise is now becoming increasingly significant for large engines. Recently, an in-house compressor testbed was upgraded by adding an acoustic modal measurement system (MSMS) that allows detailed investigation of modal sound fields inside the piping. This forms part of an updated compressor acoustic qualification procedure. This paper is an in-depth treatise of the characteristics of this modal measurement system. The calculation approach for the modal decomposition and a simplified alternative that assumes axial propagation, as well as relevant considerations, such as spatial resolution, averaging, and the use of multiple reference sensors, are addressed. Various measurement parameters, such as repeatability, measurement time, required temperature stability, pressure scaling, flow noise and their impact on measurement uncertainty were investigated. A successful validation of the modal sound measurement system with a well-known modal sound field at the compressor inlet is also presented. Finally, the characteristics of the modal sound fields of the compressor outlet of a typical modern turbocharger are discussed. Modal decompositions at the first two blade passing frequencies (BPFs) are presented for selected operating points (OPs). The response of total sound power levels (PWLs) to compressor speed along the operating line (OL) is examined by means of both the present and the simplified algorithm. A sensitivity analysis shows the impact of volume flow and rotational speed on the modal sound distribution.