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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Vehicular and Small Turbomachines

Cold-Air Bypass Characterization for Thermal Management of Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrids

[+] Author and Article Information
Valentina Zaccaria

National Energy Technology Laboratory,
U.S. Department of Energy,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: Valentina.zaccaria@netl.doe.gov

David Tucker

National Energy Technology Laboratory,
U.S. Department of Energy,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: David.tucker@netl.doe.gov

Alberto Traverso

Thermochemical Power Group,
University of Genova,
Via Montallegro 1,
Genova 16145, Italy
e-mail: Alberto.traverso@unige.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Vehicular and Small Turbomachines Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 15, 2016; final manuscript received October 24, 2016; published online February 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Rakesh K. Bhargava.This work is in part a work of the U.S. Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(6), 062701 (Feb 01, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4035396 History: Received June 15, 2016; Revised October 24, 2016

The effect of cathode airflow variation on the dynamics of a fuel cell gas turbine hybrid system was evaluated using a cyber-physical emulator. The coupling between cathode airflow and other parameters, such as turbine speed or pressure, was analyzed comparing the results at fixed and variable speed. In particular, attention was focused on fuel cell temperatures and gradients: cathode airflow, which is generally employed for thermal management of the stack, was varied by manipulating a cold-air bypass. A significant difference was observed in the two cases in terms of turbine inlet, exhaust gas, cathode inlet, and average cell temperatures. When the turbine speed was held constant, a change in cathode airflow resulted in a strong variation in cathode inlet temperature, while average cell temperature was not significantly affected. The opposite behavior was observed at variable speed. The system dynamics were analyzed in detail in order to explain this difference. Open-loop response was analyzed in this work for its essential role in system identification. However, a significant difference was observed between fixed and variable speed cases, because of the high coupling between turbine speed and cathode airflow. These results can give a helpful insight of system dynamics and control requirements. Cold-air valve bypass position also showed a strong effect on surge margin and pressure dynamics in both cases.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

HyPer facility layout

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Fig. 9

Cathode inlet temperature trends in open and closed loops

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Cathode temperature difference in open and closed loops

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Fig. 2

System pressure drop trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 3

Pressure trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 4

Turbine speed trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 5

Turbine inlet and outlet temperature trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 6

Fuel cell thermal output trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 7

Compressor inlet airflow trends in open and closed loops

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Cathode inlet airflow trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 10

Fuel cell average temperature trends in open and closed loops

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Fig. 12

Compressor surge margin trends in open and closed loops

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