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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Investigation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of In-Cylinder Engine Swirl Flow Fields Using Quadruple Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Penghui Ge

University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: penghuige@sjtu.edu.cn

David L. S. Hung

Mem. ASME
University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: dhung@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 9, 2016; final manuscript received December 7, 2016; published online February 23, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(7), 072803 (Feb 23, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1528; doi: 10.1115/1.4035628 History: Received November 09, 2016; Revised December 07, 2016

It has been observed that the swirl characteristics of in-cylinder air flow in a spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine affect the fuel spray dispersion and flame propagation speed, impacting the fuel mixture formation and combustion process under high swirl conditions. In addition, the cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs) of swirl flow often degrade the air–fuel mixing and combustion quality in the cylinder. In this study, the 2D flow structure along a swirl plane at 30 mm below the injector tip was recorded using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a four-valve optical SIDI engine under high swirl condition. Quadruple proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to investigate the cycle-to-cycle variations of 200 consecutive cycles. The flow fields were analyzed by dividing the swirl plane into four zones along the measured swirl plane according to the positions of intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder head. Experimental results revealed that the coefficient of variation (COV) of the quadruple POD mode coefficients could be used to estimate the cycle-to-cycle variations at a specific crank angle. The dominant structure was represented by the first POD mode in which its kinetic energy could be correlated with the motions of the intake valves. Moreover, higher order flow variations were closely related to the flow stability at different zones. In summary, quadruple POD provides another meaningful way to understand the intake swirl impact on the cycle-to-cycle variations of the in-cylinder flow characteristics in SIDI engine.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Examples of quadruple POD analysis procedures at −90 CAD ATDC: (a) RI evolution for reconstruction of coherent structure and (b) RI evolution for reconstruction of noise structure

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Fig. 3

Illustration of four flow structures obtained by quadruple POD at −90 CAD: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, (c) turbulent structure, and (d) noise structure

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Fig. 4

Mode convergence behavior at three typical crank angles: −270 CAD, −180 CAD, and −90 CAD ATDC

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Fig. 5

Division of four zones within a swirl plane: (a) zone divisions and (b) vector allocation in each zone

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Fig. 6

Ensemble average flow and corresponding POD mode convergence behavior at −270 CAD ATDC (a) and (d); −180 CAD ATDC (b) and (e); −90 CAD ATDC (c) and (f)

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Fig. 7

Kinetic energy fraction of quadruple modes

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Fig. 8

COV of kinetic energy of quadruple modes

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Fig. 10

Quadruple POD structures for zone 2 at −90 CAD ATDC: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, (c) turbulent structure, and (d) noise structure

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Fig. 9

Quadruple POD structures for zone 1 at −90 CAD ATDC: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, (c) turbulent structure, and (d) noise structure

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Fig. 11

Kinetic energy fraction of four zones: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, and (c) turbulent structure

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Fig. 12

Raw particle image frame 1 (a), image frame 2 (b), and flow field (c), recorded at −240 CAD ATDC

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Fig. 13

Intake valve lift profiles

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