0
Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Investigation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of In-Cylinder Engine Swirl Flow Fields Using Quadruple Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Penghui Ge

University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: penghuige@sjtu.edu.cn

David L. S. Hung

Mem. ASME
University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong
University Joint Institute,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
800 Dongchuan Road,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: dhung@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 9, 2016; final manuscript received December 7, 2016; published online February 23, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(7), 072803 (Feb 23, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1528; doi: 10.1115/1.4035628 History: Received November 09, 2016; Revised December 07, 2016

It has been observed that the swirl characteristics of in-cylinder air flow in a spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine affect the fuel spray dispersion and flame propagation speed, impacting the fuel mixture formation and combustion process under high swirl conditions. In addition, the cycle-to-cycle variations (CCVs) of swirl flow often degrade the air–fuel mixing and combustion quality in the cylinder. In this study, the 2D flow structure along a swirl plane at 30 mm below the injector tip was recorded using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a four-valve optical SIDI engine under high swirl condition. Quadruple proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to investigate the cycle-to-cycle variations of 200 consecutive cycles. The flow fields were analyzed by dividing the swirl plane into four zones along the measured swirl plane according to the positions of intake and exhaust valves in the cylinder head. Experimental results revealed that the coefficient of variation (COV) of the quadruple POD mode coefficients could be used to estimate the cycle-to-cycle variations at a specific crank angle. The dominant structure was represented by the first POD mode in which its kinetic energy could be correlated with the motions of the intake valves. Moreover, higher order flow variations were closely related to the flow stability at different zones. In summary, quadruple POD provides another meaningful way to understand the intake swirl impact on the cycle-to-cycle variations of the in-cylinder flow characteristics in SIDI engine.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Farrell, J. T. , Weissman, W. , Johnston, R. J. , Nishimura, J. , Ueda, T. , and Iwashita, Y. , 2003, “ Fuel Effects on SIDI Efficiency and Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-3186.
Zhao, F. , Lai, M. C. , and Harrington, D. L. , 1999, “ Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 25(5), pp. 437–562. [CrossRef]
Abraham, P. S. , Yang, X. , Gupta, S. , Kuo, T.-W. , Reuss, D. L. , and Sick, V. , 2015, “ Flow-Pattern Switching in a Motored Spark Ignition Engine,” Int. J. Engine Res., 16(3), pp. 323–339. [CrossRef]
Ozdor, N. , Dulger, M. , and Sher, E. , 1994, “ Cyclic Variability in Spark Ignition Engines a Literature Survey,” SAE Paper No. 940987.
Reuss, D. L. , Adrian, R. J. , Landreth, C. C. , French, D. T. , and Fansler, T. D. , 1989, “ Instantaneous Planar Measurements of Velocity and Large-Scale Vorticity and Strain Rate in an Engine Using Particle-Image Velocimetry,” SAE Paper No. 890616.
Sick, V. , Drake, M. C. , and Fansler, T. D. , 2010, “ High-Speed Imaging for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine Research and Development,” Exp. Fluids, 49(4), pp. 937–947. [CrossRef]
Bizon, K. , Continillo, G. , Leistner, K. C. , Mancaruso, E. , and Vaglieco, B. M. , 2009, “ POD-Based Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2809–2816. [CrossRef]
Vu, T.-T. , and Guibert, P. , 2012, “ Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis for Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Engine Flow. Effect of a Control Device in an Inlet Pipe,” Exp. Fluids, 52(6), pp. 1519–1532. [CrossRef]
Qin, W. , Xie, M. , Jia, M. , Wang, T. , and Liu, D. , 2014, “ Large Eddy Simulation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis of Turbulent Flows in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine: Cyclic Variation and Effect of Valve Lift,” Sci. China: Technol. Sci., 57(3), pp. 489–504. [CrossRef]
Lee, K. , Bae, C. , and Kang, K. , 2007, “ The Effects of Tumble and Swirl Flows on Flame Propagation in a Four-Valve SI Engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(11), pp. 2122–2130. [CrossRef]
Porpatham, E. , Ramesh, A. , and Nagalingam, B. , 2013, “ Effect of Swirl on the Performance and Combustion of a Biogas Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 76, pp. 463–471. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , Xu, M. , and Hung, D. L. S. , 2014, “ Analyzing In-Cylinder Flow Evolution and Variations in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Phase-Invariant Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Technique,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1174.
Chen, H. , Reuss, D. L. , and Sick, V. , 2012, “ On the Use and Interpretation of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of In-Cylinder Engine Flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 23(8), p. 085302. [CrossRef]
Roudnitzky, S. , Druault, P. , and Guibert, P. , 2006, “ Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of In-Cylinder Engine Flow Into Mean Component, Coherent Structures and Random Gaussian Fluctuations,” J. Turbul., 70(7).
Zhuang, H. , and Hung, D. L. S. , 2016, “ Characterization of the Effect of Intake Air Swirl Motion on Time-Resolved In-Cylinder Flow Field Using Quadruple Proper Orthogonal Decomposition,” Energy Convers. Manage., 108, pp. 366–376. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , Hung, D. L. S. , Xu, M. , Zhuang, H. , and Yang, J. , 2014, “ Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis of Fuel Spray Structure Variation in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Optical Engine,” Exp. Fluids, 55(4), pp. 1–12.
Zeng, W. , Sjöberg, M. , and Reuss, D. , 2014, “ Using PIV Measurements to Determine the Role of the In-Cylinder Flow Field for Stratified DISI Engine Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1237.
Zha, K. , Busch, S. , Miles, P. C. , Wijeyakulasuriya, S. , Mitra, S. , and Senecal, P. K. , 2015, “ Characterization of Flow Asymmetry During the Compression Stroke Using Swirl-Plane PIV in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine With the Re-Entrant Piston Bowl Geometry,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-1699.
Baum, E. , Peterson, B. , Böhm, B. , and Dreizler, A. , 2014, “ On the Validation of LES Applied to Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Part 1: Comprehensive Experimental Database,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 92(1–2), pp. 269–297. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , Reuss, D. L. , Hung, D. L. S. , and Sick, V. , 2013, “ A Practical Guide for Using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition in Engine Research,” Int. J. Engine Res., 14(4), pp. 307–319. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Examples of quadruple POD analysis procedures at −90 CAD ATDC: (a) RI evolution for reconstruction of coherent structure and (b) RI evolution for reconstruction of noise structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Illustration of four flow structures obtained by quadruple POD at −90 CAD: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, (c) turbulent structure, and (d) noise structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mode convergence behavior at three typical crank angles: −270 CAD, −180 CAD, and −90 CAD ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Division of four zones within a swirl plane: (a) zone divisions and (b) vector allocation in each zone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Ensemble average flow and corresponding POD mode convergence behavior at −270 CAD ATDC (a) and (d); −180 CAD ATDC (b) and (e); −90 CAD ATDC (c) and (f)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Kinetic energy fraction of quadruple modes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

COV of kinetic energy of quadruple modes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Quadruple POD structures for zone 2 at −90 CAD ATDC: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, (c) turbulent structure, and (d) noise structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Quadruple POD structures for zone 1 at −90 CAD ATDC: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, (c) turbulent structure, and (d) noise structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Kinetic energy fraction of four zones: (a) dominant structure, (b) coherent structure, and (c) turbulent structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Raw particle image frame 1 (a), image frame 2 (b), and flow field (c), recorded at −240 CAD ATDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Intake valve lift profiles

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In