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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Vehicular and Small Turbomachines

System-Level Performance of Microturbines With an Inside-Out Ceramic Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Nidal Kochrad

Createk,
Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT),
3000 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: Nidal.Kochrad@USherbrooke.ca

Nicolas Courtois

Createk,
Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT),
3000 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: Nicolas.Courtois@USherbrooke.ca

Miguel Charette

Createk,
Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT),
3000 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: Miguel.Charette@USherbrooke.ca

Benoit Picard

Ceragy Engines, Inc.,
Parc Innovation-ACELP,
3000 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: bpicard@ceragy.ca

Alexandre Landry-Blais

Createk,
Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT),
3000 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 0A5, Canada
e-mail: Alexandre.Landry-Blais@USherbrooke.ca

David Rancourt

Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL),
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: David.Rancourt@gatech.edu

Jean-Sébastien Plante

Faculté de génie,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Jean-Sebastien.Plante@USherbrooke.ca

Mathieu Picard

Faculté de génie,
Université de Sherbrooke,
3000 boulevard de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Mathieu.Picard@USherbrooke.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 13, 2016; published online February 1, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(6), 062702 (Feb 01, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1573; doi: 10.1115/1.4035648 History: Received December 06, 2016; Revised December 13, 2016

Ceramic turbines can reduce fuel consumption by increasing turbine inlet temperatures (TIT). The need for heat-resistant materials like ceramics is particularly acute for small turbomachines for which efficiencies are limited by the use of uncooled metal turbine as complex cooling schemes are impractical and costly. Efforts to introduce ceramics in the turbine rotor were made between the 1960s and the 1990s by gas turbines and automotive manufacturers in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. While significant progress was made, a suitable level of reliability still cannot be achieved as the brittleness of ceramics leads to crack propagation in the blades loaded in tension and catastrophic failure. The inside-out ceramic turbine (ICT) is a design alternative specific to ceramics that loads the blades in compression by using an outer, air-cooled composite rim that sustains the centrifugal loads. This paper provides an analytical model based on the Brayton cycle to compute the system-level performance of microturbines using an ICT. Loss submodels specific to ICT architectures are developed to account for: (1) composite rim drag, (2) composite rim cooling, (3) leakage through rotating seals, and (4) expansion heat losses. The thermodynamic core model is validated against three state-of-the-art, non-inside-out, microturbines. Based on a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the modeling uncertainties, the model predicts a cycle efficiency of 45±1% for a 240 kW ICT-based microturbine, leading to a predicted reduction in fuel consumption of 20% over current all-metal microturbines.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Inside-out ceramic turbine (ICT)

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Fig. 2

Microturbine components and station numbering

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Fig. 3

Calculation flowchart

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Fig. 4

The expansion process flowchart

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Fig. 5

Turbine cross section, radial characteristics dimensions, and seal locations 1, 2, and 3

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Fig. 6

Unwrapped blades and cooling system

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Fig. 7

Rotating seal leakages

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Fig. 9

Efficiency distribution from the Monte Carlo simulation

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Fig. 10

Microturbine thermofluid quantities

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Fig. 11

Cycle performance and losses impact prediction

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