Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Flow Dynamics and Mixing of a Transverse Jet in Crossflow—Part I: Steady Crossflow

[+] Author and Article Information
Liwei Zhang

School of Aerospace Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: liwei@gatech.edu

Vigor Yang

William R. T. Oakes Professor and Chair
School of Aerospace Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: vigor.yang@aerospace.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 14, 2016; final manuscript received December 20, 2016; published online March 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Riccardo Da Soghe.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(8), 082601 (Mar 21, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1217; doi: 10.1115/1.4035808 History: Received June 14, 2016; Revised December 20, 2016

A large-eddy-simulation-based numerical investigation of a turbulent gaseous jet in crossflow (JICF) is presented. The present work focuses on cases with a steady crossflow and two different jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios, 2 and 4, at the same jet centerline velocity of 160 m/s. Emphasis is placed on the detailed flow evolution and scalar mixing in a compressible, turbulent environment. Various flow characteristics, including jet trajectories, jet-center streamlines, vortical structures, and intrinsic instabilities, as well as their relationships with the mixing process, are examined. Mixing efficiency is quantified by the decay rate of scalar concentration, the probability density function (PDF), and the spatial and temporal mixing deficiencies. Depending on the jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios, the wake vortices downstream of the injector orifice can either separate from or connect to the main jet plume, and this has a strong impact on mixing efficiency and vortex system development. Statistical analysis is applied to explore the underlying physics, with special attention at the jet-center and transverse planes.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of a transverse jet in crossflow and relevant flow structures [5]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the computational domain

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Fig. 3

Profiles of (a) time-averaged velocity magnitude and scalar concentration and (b) components of the Reynolds stress tensor in the jet-center plane (solid lines: dynamic SGS model; dashed lines: static SGS model; and symbols: experiments)

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Fig. 9

Time-averaged trajectories of the jet in the jet-center plane: (a) r = 2 and (b) r = 4

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Fig. 8

Temporal evolution of scalar concentration in the jet-center plane: (a) r = 2 and (b) r = 4

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Fig. 7

Two-dimensional streamlines of the time-averaged flowfield in the jet-center plane: (a) r = 2 and (b) r = 4. Scalar concentration is shown in grayscale.

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Fig. 6

Three-dimensional streamlines of the time-averaged flowfield: (a) r = 2, (b) r = 4, and (c) streamline traces in the z/d = −2 plane

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Fig. 5

Instantaneous flowfield for r = 2 (left) and 4 (right) at t = 0.8 ms: (a) isosurface of vorticity magnitude |Ω| = 1.25 × 105/s and (b) isosurface of helicity H = 2.5 × 105 m/s2. Colored by scalar concentration.

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Fig. 4

Profiles of (a) time-averaged and (b) RMS of streamwise velocity, transverse velocity, and scalar concentration in the jet-center plane (red solid: grid A; black-dashed: grid B; and blue dashed–dotted–dotted: grid C) and (c) isosurfaces of vorticity magnitude |Ω| = 2.5 × 105/s on three grids at t = 0.8 ms colored by scalar concentration (r = 2)

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Fig. 10

Spatial evolution of the time-averaged scalar concentration with two-dimensional streamlines (r = 4)

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Fig. 12

Spatial evolution of the maxima (over the x-planes) of the local scalar concentration and the normalized transverse velocity

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Fig. 13

Point PDF of scalar concentration at three probes: (a) r = 2 and (b) r = 4

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Fig. 11

Spatial evolution of the time-averaged (a) scalar concentration and (b) transverse velocity along the center streamlines (r = 4)

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Fig. 14

Spatial evolution of mixing indices: (a) SMD and (b) TMD



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