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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Method for the Preliminary Fluid Dynamic Design of High-Temperature Mini-Organic Rankine Cycle Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Sebastian Bahamonde

Propulsion & Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Kluyverweg 1,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: S.Bahamonde@tudelft.nl

Matteo Pini

Propulsion & Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Kluyverweg 1,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: M.Pini@tudelft.nl

Carlo De Servi

Propulsion & Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Kluyverweg 1,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: C.M.DeServi@tudelft.nl

Antonio Rubino

Propulsion & Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Kluyverweg 1,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: A.Rubino@tudelft.nl

Piero Colonna

Professor
Propulsion & Power,
Delft University of Technology,
Kluyverweg 1,
Delft 2629 HS, The Netherlands
e-mail: P.Colonna@tudelft.nl

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 1, 2016; final manuscript received January 6, 2017; published online March 28, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(8), 082606 (Mar 28, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1517; doi: 10.1115/1.4035841 History: Received November 01, 2016; Revised January 06, 2017

Widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies will arguably benefit from the availability of economically viable distributed thermal power conversion systems. For this reason, considerable efforts have been dedicated in recent years to R&D over mini-organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plants, thus with a power capacity approximately in the 3–50 kW range. The application of these systems for waste heat recovery from diesel engines of long-haul trucks stands out because of the possibility of achieving economy of production. Many technical challenges need to be solved, as the system must be sufficiently efficient, light, and compact. The design paradigm is therefore completely different from that of conventional stationary ORC power plants of much larger capacity. A high speed turbine is arguably the expander of choice, if high conversion efficiency is targeted, thus high maximum cycle temperature. Given the lack of knowledge on the design of these turbines, which depends on a large number of constraints, a novel optimal design method integrating the preliminary design of the thermodynamic cycle and that of the turbine has been developed. The method is applicable to radial inflow, axial and radial outflow turbines, and to superheated and supercritical cycle configurations. After a limited number of working fluids are selected, the feasible design space is explored by means of thermodynamic cycle design calculations integrated with a simplified turbine design procedure, whereby the isentropic expansion efficiency is prescribed. Starting from the resulting design space, optimal preliminary designs are obtained by combining cycle calculations with a 1D mean-line code, subject to constraints. The application of the procedure is illustrated for a test case: the design of turbines to be tested in a new experimental setup named organic rankine cycle hybrid integrated device (ORCHID) which is being constructed at the Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. The first turbine selected for further design and construction employs siloxane MM (hexamethyldisiloxane, C6H18OSi2), supercritical cycle, and the radial inflow configuration. The main preliminary design specifications are power output equal to 11.6 kW, turbine inlet temperature equal to 300 °C, maximum cycle pressure equal to 19.9 bar, expansion ratio equal to 72, rotational speed equal to 90 krpm, inlet diameter equal to 75 mm, minimum blade height equal to 2 mm, degree of reaction equal to 0.44, and estimated total-to-static efficiency equal to 77.3%. Results of the design calculations are affected by considerable uncertainty related to the loss correlations employed for the preliminary turbine design, as they have not been validated yet for this highly unconventional supersonic and transonic mini turbine. Future work will be dedicated to the extension of the method to encompass the preliminary design of heat exchangers and the off-design operation of the system.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Process flow diagram of an ORC system with regeneration. (b) Exemplary temperature-entropy thermodynamic diagram of a supercritical ORC cycle.

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Fig. 2

Turbine velocity triangles

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Fig. 3

Meridional channel of a radial inflow turbine

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Fig. 4

Meridional channel for a radial outflow and axial turbine

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Fig. 5

Exemplary contour plot for an RIT with (a) the rotational speed Ω and the turbine inlet diameter D0, and (b) the blade height at stator outlet and the rotor flow acceleration, as a function of the maximum pressure Pmax and the degree of reaction R

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Fig. 6

Flow chart illustrating the implementation of the design optimization method

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Fig. 7

Design space for a 10 kW radial inflow turbine, using MM as the working fluid

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Fig. 8

Design space for a 10 kW radial outflow (a) and axial (b) turbine, using MM as the working fluid

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Fig. 9

T–s diagram of the thermodynamic cycles corresponding to the optimized mORC systems operating with MM as working fluid. Thermodynamic cycle computed with ΔTpn,cn=20.0 K.

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Fig. 10

Net system efficiency as a function of the maximum cycle pressure for systems operating with (a) MM and (b) PP2. Each point in the charts represents an optimal solution of the design problem for the given maximum cycle pressure. The dotted line (Con. eff) corresponds to the result of a thermodynamic cycle calculation with fixed turbine isentropic efficiency, ηtr,is=80.0%.

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Fig. 11

Turbine specifications and flow meridional channel corresponding to the global optima for the mORC operating with MM introduced in Sec. 4.2 and depicted in Fig. 10. The Mach numbers corresponding to the velocity triangles are presented in parentheses. (-) Rotor inlet velocity triangle. (- -) Rotor outlet velocity triangle.

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Fig. 12

(a) Total-to-static efficiency for 90 deg radial inflow turbine stages as a function of the specific speed. Figure taken from Refs. [12] and [26]. (■): optimal mORC RIT (working fluid: MM). (b), and (c) Total to static efficiency for axial turbine stages operating with nonconventional fluids as a function of Ωs, κ, and ςsg≈3.0 [31]. (•) in (b): stages of the optimal mORC ROT (working fluid: MM). (♦) in (c): stages of the optimal mORC AXT (working fluid: MM). The values in parentheses indicate the stage efficiency estimated with zTurbo.

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Fig. 13

Optimization results: turbine total-to-static efficiency as a function of the maximum cycle pressure. Lines are obtained by interpolating the solutions calculated by the genetic algorithm: (a) turbines operating with MM as working fluid, (b) turbines operating with PP2 as working fluid, and (c) size parameter and volumetric expansion ratio for the turbines operating with MM as the working fluid.

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Fig. 14

(a) Loss breakdown for the RIT operating with MM as a function of the maximum pressure, and computed by interpolating the results of the genetic algorithm and (b) corresponding specific speed, degree of reaction, and Mach number at stator outlet

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Fig. 15

(a) Loss breakdown for the AXT operating with MM as a function of the maximum pressure, and computed by interpolating the results of the genetic algorithm. (b) Corresponding machine-averaged stage loading (ψ), Reynolds number (Re), and Mach number (M).

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Fig. 16

(a) Loss breakdown for the ROT operating with MM as a function of the maximum pressure, and computed by interpolating the results of the genetic algorithm

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