0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Operability Limits of Tubular Injectors With Vortex Generators for a Hydrogen-Fueled Recuperated 100 kW Class Gas Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Stefan Bauer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: bauer@td.mw.tum.de

Balbina Hampel, Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 23, 2016; final manuscript received January 4, 2017; published online March 28, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(8), 082607 (Mar 28, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1595; doi: 10.1115/1.4035842 History: Received December 23, 2016; Revised January 04, 2017

Vortex generators are known to be effective in augmenting the mixing of fuel jets with air. The configuration investigated in this study is a tubular air passage with fuel injection from one single orifice placed in the side wall. In the range of typical gas turbine combustor inlet temperatures, the performance vortex generator premixers (VGPs) have already been investigated for natural gas as well as for blends of natural gas and hydrogen. However, for highly reactive fuels, the application of VGPs in recuperated gas turbines is particularly challenging because the high combustor inlet temperature leads to potential risk with regard to premature self-ignition and flame flashback. As the current knowledge does not cover the temperature range far above the self-ignition temperature, an experimental investigation of the operational limits of VGPs is currently being conducted at the Thermodynamics Institute of the Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany, which is particularly focused on reactive fuels and the thermodynamic conditions present in recuperated gas turbines with pressure ratios of 4–5. For the study presented in this paper, an atmospheric combustion VGP test rig has been designed, which facilitates investigations in a wide range of operating conditions in order to comply with the situation in recuperated microgas turbines (MGT), namely, global equivalence ratios between 0.2 and 0.7, air preheating temperatures between 288 K and 1100 K, and air bulk flow rates between 6 and 16 g/s. Both the entire mixing zone in the VGP and the primary combustion zone of the test rig are optically accessible. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging is used for the detection of the flashback and blow-off limits of the investigated VGPs. Flashback and blow-off limits of hydrogen in a wide temperature range covering the autoignition regime are presented, addressing the influences of equivalence ratio, air preheating temperature, and momentum ratio between air and hydrogen on the operational limits in terms of bulk flow velocity. It is shown that flashback and blow-off limits are increasingly influenced by autoignition in the ultrahigh temperature regime.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sawin, J. L. , Sverrisson, F. , and Rickerson, W. , 2015, “ Renewables 2015: Global Status Report,” REN21 Secretariat, Paris, Report No. 1.
Klebanoff, L. , 2013, Hydrogen Storage Technology, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
Crabtree, R. , 2008, “ Hydrogen Storage in Liquid Organic Heterocycles,” Energy Environ. Sci., 1(1), pp. 134–138. [CrossRef]
Brückner, N. , Obesser, K. , Bösmann, A. , Teichmann, D. , Arlt, W. , Dungs, J. , and Wasserscheid, P. , 2014, “ Evaluation of Industrially Applied Heat-Transfer Fluids as Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier Systems,” ChemSusChem, 7(1), pp. 229–235. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hampel, B. , Bauer, S. , Heublein, N. , Hirsch, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2015, “ Feasibility Study on Dehydrogenation of LOHC Using Excess Exhaust Heat From a Hydrogen Fueled Micro Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43168.
Hernandez, S. R. , Wang, Q. , McDonell, V. , Hollon, B. , Steinthorsson, E. , and Mansour, A. , 2008, “ Micro Mixing Fuel Injectors for Low Emissions Hydrogen Combustion,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50854.
Brückner-Kalb, J. R. , 2007, “ Sub-ppm-NOx-Verbrennungsverfahren für Gasturbinen,” Ph.D. thesis, Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
Brückner-Kalb, J. R. , Hirsch, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2006, “ Operation Characteristics of a Premixed Sub-ppm NOx Burner With Periodical Recirculation of Combustion Products,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90072.
Brückner-Kalb, J. R. , Napravnik, C. , Hirsch, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2007, “ Development of a Fuel-Air Premixer for a Sub-ppm NOx Burner,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27779.
Napravik, C. , 2006, “ Implementierung und Test Eines Wirbelstrommischers für Mikrogasturbinenbrennkammern,” Diplomarbeit, Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
Grünwald, J. , Steinbach, S. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2005, “ Wirbelmischer für SCR-Verfahren im PKW,” MTZ-Motortech. Z., 66(1), pp. 44–48. [CrossRef]
Markides, C. N. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2005, “ An Experimental Study of Hydrogen Autoignition in a Turbulent Co-Flow of Heated Air,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 30(1), pp. 883–891. [CrossRef]
Schmalhofer, C. , Griebel, P. , Stöhr, M. , Aigner, M. , and Wind, T. , 2015, “ Auto-Ignition of In-Line Injected Hydrogen/Nitrogen Fuel Mixtures at Reheat Combustor Operating Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43414.
Astbury, G. R. , and Hawksworth, S. J. , 2007, “ Spontaneous Ignition of Hydrogen Leaks,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32(13), pp. 2178–2185. [CrossRef]
Robinson, C. , and Smith, D. B. , 1984, “ The Auto-Ignition Temperature of Methane,” J. Hazard. Mater., 8(3), pp. 199–203. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Technical drawing of the heated tip, including measuring TTip and the optical accessibility part of the VGP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Vortices in the VGP—penetration for J < 1 in the lower and penetration for J > 1 in the upper region

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic drawing of the VGP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Picture of the three injector types: full metal (a), quartz short (b), and quartz long (c)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Mean OH* chemiluminescence images at the same test conditions with different fuel ratios—injector B, TAir=677 °C, and uMix 100 m/s: (a) Φ=0.555,J = 4.8, (b) Φ=0.4,J = 2.47, (c) Φ=0.25,J = 0.96, and (d) Φ=0.2,J = 0.61

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Lift-off height as a function of air temperature ( → injector A, → injector B, and → injector C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Lift-off height as a function of mixture outlet velocity (→ injector A, → injector B, and → injector C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Ignition stability as a function of air temperature—bulk flow velocity 100 m/s and injector A ( →Φ=0.555, → Φ=0.4,  →Φ=0.25, and →Φ=0.2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Ignition stability as a function of lift-off—bulk flow velocity 70 m/s and injector B (→Φ=0.4, →Φ=0.333, □ →Φ=0.285, →Φ=0.25, →Φ=0.222, and →Φ=0.2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Lift-off as a function of air mixture temperature—fuel ratio Φ=0.25 and injector A ( → uMix=140 m/s,  → uMix=100 m/s, and + → uMix=70 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Lift-off as a function of air mixture temperature—bulk flow velocity 70 m/s, injector B, and standard deviation ( → Φ=0.4, → Φ=0.333, □ → Φ=0.285, → Φ=0.25, → Φ=0.222, and → Φ=0.2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Lift-off as a function of air mixture temperature (, ) and lift-off as a function of tip temperature (, )—bulk flow velocity 100 m/s, heat plate, and Φ=0.4 ((, ) → TTip<420 °C and (, ) → TTip>500 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Lift-off as a function of air mixture temperature (, ) and lift-off as a function of tip temperature (, )—bulk flow velocity 100 m/s, heat plate, and Φ=0.25 ((, ) → TTip<410 °C and (, ) → TTip>500 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Lift-off as a function of air mixture temperature () and lift-off as a function of hydrogen volume fraction ()—bulk flow velocity 100 m/s, TAir=740°C, Φ=0.37, and natural gas ( → TMix,  → ψH2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Lift-off as a function of air mixture temperature—bulk flow velocity 100 m/s (, , ) and 70 m/s (), injector A, and secondary air ( → α=0%,  → α=4%, → α=7.7%, and → α=11%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Ignition stability as a function of air mixture temperature—bulk flow velocity 100 m/s (, , ) and 70 m/s (), injector A, and secondary air ( → α=0%,  → α=4%, → α=7.7%, and → α=11%)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In