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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

An Experimental Apparatus and Procedure for the Simulation of Thermal Stresses in Gas Turbine Combustion Chamber Panels Made of Ceramic Matrix Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Larry Lebel

Pratt & Whitney Canada,
1000, Marie-Victorin,
Longueuil, QC J4G 1A1, Canada
e-mail: Larry.Lebel@pwc.ca

Sylvain Turenne

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École Polytechnique de Montréal,
C.P. 6079, Succursale Centre-Ville,
Montréal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
e-mail: Sylvain.Turenne@polymtl.ca

Rachid Boukhili

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École Polytechnique de Montréal,
C.P. 6079, Succursale Centre-Ville,
Montréal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
e-mail: Rachid.Boukhili@polymtl.ca

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 1, 2016; final manuscript received January 27, 2017; published online April 11, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(9), 091502 (Apr 11, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1518; doi: 10.1115/1.4035906 History: Received November 01, 2016; Revised January 27, 2017

This paper presents an experimental procedure developed to simulate the behavior of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) under the cyclic thermal stresses of a gas turbine combustion chamber. An experimental apparatus was assembled that produces a temperature gradient across the thickness of a CMC specimen while holding the specimen at its two extremities, which simulates the bending stress that would be observed at the center of a combustor panel. Preliminary validation tests were performed in which A-N720 oxide–oxide CMC specimens were heated to a surface temperature of up to 1160 °C using an infrared heater, which allowed for the calibration of heat losses and material thermal conductivity. The specimen test conditions were compared with predicted conditions in generic annular combustor panels made of the same material. Provided that a more powerful heat source is made available to reach sufficiently high temperatures and through-thickness temperature gradients simultaneously, the proposed experiment promises to allow laboratory observation of representative deterioration modes of a CMC inside an actual combustion chamber.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Annular straight-flow combustor

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Fig. 2

Combustor panel assembly with assumed generic boundary conditions

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Fig. 3

Temperature and stress plots over an inner liner panel: (a) temperature, (b) circumferential normal stress, (c) axial normal stress, and (d) through-thickness (r–θ) shear stress

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Fig. 4

Experimental apparatus

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Fig. 6

Back-side air cooling system

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Fig. 7

Heating of an A-N720 CMC specimen with and without back-side impingement cooling

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Fig. 8

Test specimen thermocouple locations

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Fig. 9

Measured surface temperatures of the tested A-N720 CMC specimen, and calibrated transient analysis results: (a) with back-side impingement and (b) under natural convection only

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Fig. 10

Specimen temperature per calibrated steady-state analysis, with and without back-side impingement cooling (tc: thermocouple locations)

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Fig. 11

Measured reaction force of the tested A-N720 CMC specimen and calibrated transient analysis results: (a) with back-side impingement and (b) under natural convection only

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Fig. 12

Measured reaction force during A-N720 specimen cycling with back-side impingement cooling

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Fig. 13

Measured reaction force during A-N720 specimen cycling without back-side impingement cooling

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Fig. 14

Specimen normal stresses per calibrated steady-state analysis, with back-side impingement cooling

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Fig. 15

Specimen shear stresses per calibrated steady-state analysis, with back-side impingement cooling

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