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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Study on Premixed Combustion of Ammonia/Hydrogen Fuels for Gas Turbine Use

[+] Author and Article Information
Hua Xiao

Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Room W/2.06, Queen's Buildings, The Parade,
Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
e-mail: XiaoH4@cardiff.ac.uk

Agustin Valera-Medina

Cardiff School of Engineering,
Cardiff University,
Room S/1.03a, Queen's Buildings, The Parade,
Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
e-mail: ValeraMedinaA1@cardiff.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 29, 2016; final manuscript received January 31, 2017; published online April 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Song-Charng Kong.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(8), 081504 (Apr 04, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1553; doi: 10.1115/1.4035911 History: Received November 29, 2016; Revised January 31, 2017

To explore the potential of ammonia-based fuel as an alternative fuel for future power generation, studies involving robust mathematical, chemical, thermofluidic analyses are required to progress toward industrial implementation. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify reaction mechanisms that accurately represent ammonia kinetics over a large range of conditions, particularly at industrial conditions. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of the chemical mechanisms, 12 mechanisms are tested in terms of flame speed, NOx emissions and ignition delay against the experimental data. Freely propagating flame calculations indicate that Mathieu mechanism yields the best agreement within experimental data range of different ammonia concentrations, equivalence ratios, and pressures. Ignition delay times calculations show that Mathieu mechanism and Tian mechanism yield the best agreement with data from shock tube experiments at pressures up to 30 atm. Sensitivity analyses were performed in order to identify reactions and ranges of conditions that require optimization in future mechanism development. The present study suggests that the Mathieu mechanism and Tian mechanism are the best suited for the further study on ammonia/hydrogen combustion chemistry under practical industrial conditions. The results obtained in this study also allow gas turbine designers and modelers to choose the most suitable mechanism for combustion studies.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flame speed calculation of 40% NH3 flame. Experiments as in Ref. [31].

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Fig. 2

Flame speed calculation of 50% NH3 flame. Experiments as in Ref. [31].

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Fig. 3

Flame speed calculation of 61.5% NH3 flame. Experiments as in Ref. [31].

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Fig. 4

Sensitivity analysis of flame speed by Mathieu mechanism (40.0%NH3, ER = 0.83)

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Fig. 5

Sensitivity analysis of flame speed by Miller mechanism (40.0%NH3, ER = 0.83)

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Fig. 6

Sensitivity analysis of flame speed by Mathieu mechanism (40.0%NH3, ER = 1.23)

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Fig. 7

Sensitivity analysis of flame speed by Miller mechanism (40.0%NH3, ER = 1.23)

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Fig. 8

Sensitivity analysis of flame speed by Mathieu mechanism (50.0%NH3, ER = 1.23)

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Fig. 9

Sensitivity analysis of flame speed by Mathieu mechanism (61.5%NH3, ER = 1.23)

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Fig. 10

Flame speed calculation of fuel lean condition (ER = 0.80). Experiments as in Ref. [31].

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Fig. 11

Flame speed calculation of stoichiometric condition (ER = 1.00). Experiments as in Ref. [31].

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Fig. 12

Flame speed calculation of fuel rich condition (ER = 1.25). Experiments as in Ref. [31].

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Fig. 13

Flame speed calculation of ammonia (p = 0.3 MPa). Experiments as in Ref. [17].

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Fig. 14

Flame speed calculation of ammonia (p = 0.5 MPa). Experiments as in Ref. [17].

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Fig. 19

Sensitivity analysis of NO by Tian mechanism (flame 1)

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Fig. 20

Sensitivity analysis of NO by Mathieu mechanism (flame 1)

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Fig. 21

Pathway of NO formation

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Fig. 22

NOx emission as a function of pressure

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Fig. 23

Ignition delay times of NH3 mixtures (0.4%NH3/0.6%O2/99%Ar)—1.4 atm. Experiments from Ref. [14].

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Fig. 24

Ignition delay times of NH3 mixtures (0.4%NH3/0.6%O2/99%Ar)—11 atm. Experiments from Ref. [14].

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Fig. 25

Ignition delay times of NH3 mixtures (0.4%NH3/0.6%O2/99%Ar)—30 atm. Experiments from Ref. [14].

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Fig. 26

Sensitivity analysis of OH by Tian mechanism (0.4%NH3/0.6%O2/99%Ar)—30 atm

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Fig. 27

Sensitivity analysis of OH by Mathieu mechanism (0.4%NH3/0.6%O2/99%Ar)—30 atm

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Fig. 18

Mole fraction of NO in burnt gas. Experiments as in Ref. [18].

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Fig. 17

Mole fraction of highest N2O in burnt gas. Experiments as in Ref. [18].

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Fig. 16

Mole fraction of H2 in burnt gas. Experiments as in Ref. [18].

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Fig. 15

Mole fraction of N2 in burnt gas. Experiments as in Ref.[18].

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