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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Annular Casing Impingement Arrays for Faster Casing Response

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Dann

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, Oxfordshire, UK
e-mail: andrew.dann@eng.ox.ac.uk

Priyanka Dhopade, Marko Bacic, Peter Ireland

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, Oxfordshire, UK

Leo Lewis

Structural Systems Design,
Rolls-Royce plc,
Derby DE24 8BJ, UK
e-mail: leo.lewis@Rolls-Royce.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 6, 2017; final manuscript received January 31, 2017; published online April 11, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(9), 092603 (Apr 11, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4036061 History: Received January 06, 2017; Revised January 31, 2017

The transient heat transfer facility (THTF) was developed to test full-scale high pressure compressor and turbine casing air systems using gas turbine engine representative secondary air system conditions. Transient casing response together with blade and disk responses governs achievable tip clearances in both compressors and turbines. This paper investigates the use of air impingement as a means to speed up the casing response. The thermal growth of the casing was characterized by surface temperature rise over a given period to assess achievable dynamic response. The experimental setup resembles a typical aircraft engine with features that can lead to circumferential temperature nonuniformities, as evident from the experimental results. The experimental data were compared against numerical predictions from a conjugate heat transfer (CHT) model. The studies show the significance of analyzing the full annulus, at engine representative conditions and the benefit of an impingement array to potentially speed up casing response for future engines.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Traditional flight cycle closure traces with fast casing and slow rotor time constants, compared to inverted and matched relationships [1]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of a typical shrouded turbine segment cavity (adapted from Ref. [13])

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Fig. 3

Photo showing the pressure vessel and rear valve arrangement

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Fig. 4

Detail of the pressure vessel inner working section

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Fig. 6

Thermocouple position on the two impingement plate configurations. The distance A is 17 mm.

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Fig. 7

Cross section of the engine casing showing the axial position of the thermocouples (labelled outer and inner) relative to impingement plate (shaded grey) and casing

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Fig. 8

Thermocouple fixing method to casing surface

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Fig. 9

Example of the comparison of experimental (solid lines) and analytical (dashed lines) casing inner and outer temperatures for quadrant 1, plate 1b

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Fig. 10

Computational domain of impingement system (quarter sector)

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Fig. 11

Computational grid for plate 2b: (a) fluid side of fluid-solid interface on inner casing above impingement holes and (b) symmetry surface with 15 inflation layers generated from inner surface of casing

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Fig. 12

Snapshot of nondimensional temperature θ* on metal inner surface at Fo = 0.2 for plates 1b and 2b from unsteady CHT simulation

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Fig. 13

Circumferential temperature uniformity for inner and outer thermocouple locations. Circumferential scale is in degrees and radial scale is in Kelvin.

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Fig. 14

Schematic of the main flows entering the impingement cavity. L1, L2, and L3 are leakage flows, m˙ is the total impingement flow, and m˙tot is the total flow out of four offtake pipes.

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Fig. 15

Sketch of the seal arrangement between impingement plates and the leakage paths, (a) cross section of full plate showing the braided seal positions A and B looking circumferentially and (b) close-up cross-sectional view showing the shim seal within the groove looking axially

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Fig. 16

Estimation of thermocouple location uncertainty using result of unsteady CHT simulation of plate 2b at Fo = 0.48: (a) temperature map of outer casing region surrounding thermocouple location with variation of location by ±Y/d = 5 in each direction and (b) time history of thermocouple θ* and locations 1–8 illustrated in (a), where a 2.4 K difference in temperature is observed between TC and location 6 at Fo = 0.48

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Fig. 17

Nondimensional temperature rise with respect to Fourier number for plates 1b and 2b on the inner and outer surface of the casing, with comparison of experimental and unsteady CHT simulation

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Fig. 18

Experimental HTCs compared to numerical HTCs for plates 1b and 2b with error bars

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Fig. 19

Boundary conditions for transient heat conduction analysis

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