0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Annular Casing Impingement Arrays for Faster Casing Response

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Dann

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, Oxfordshire, UK
e-mail: andrew.dann@eng.ox.ac.uk

Priyanka Dhopade, Marko Bacic, Peter Ireland

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, Oxfordshire, UK

Leo Lewis

Structural Systems Design,
Rolls-Royce plc,
Derby DE24 8BJ, UK
e-mail: leo.lewis@Rolls-Royce.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received January 6, 2017; final manuscript received January 31, 2017; published online April 11, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(9), 092603 (Apr 11, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4036061 History: Received January 06, 2017; Revised January 31, 2017

The transient heat transfer facility (THTF) was developed to test full-scale high pressure compressor and turbine casing air systems using gas turbine engine representative secondary air system conditions. Transient casing response together with blade and disk responses governs achievable tip clearances in both compressors and turbines. This paper investigates the use of air impingement as a means to speed up the casing response. The thermal growth of the casing was characterized by surface temperature rise over a given period to assess achievable dynamic response. The experimental setup resembles a typical aircraft engine with features that can lead to circumferential temperature nonuniformities, as evident from the experimental results. The experimental data were compared against numerical predictions from a conjugate heat transfer (CHT) model. The studies show the significance of analyzing the full annulus, at engine representative conditions and the benefit of an impingement array to potentially speed up casing response for future engines.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lattime, S. B. , and Steinetz, B. M. , 2002, “ Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions,” Technical Report, NASA Technical Memorandum, Report No. NASA/TM–2002-211794.
Denton, J. , 1993, “ Loss Mechanisms in Turbo Machines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(4), pp. 621–656. [CrossRef]
Han, J. , Dutta, S. , and Ekkad, S. , 2000, Gas Turbine Heat Transfer and Cooling Technology, 2nd ed., Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, Florida.
Ameri, A. A. , and Bunker, R. S. , 1999, “ Heat Transfer and Flow on the First-Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine—Part 2: Simulation Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 122(2), pp. 272–277. [CrossRef]
Mayle, R. , and Metzger, D. , 1982, “ Heat Transfer at the Tip of an Unshrouded Turbine Blade,” Seventh International Heat Transfer Conference, Hemisphere Publishing, Munich, Germany, pp. 87–92.
Bunker, R. S. , Bailey, J. C. , and Ameri, A. A. , 1999, “ Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine—Part 1: Experimental Results,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-169.
Kwak, J. S. , Ahn, J. , and Han, J.-C. , 2004, “ Effects of Rim Location, Rim Height, and Tip Clearance on the Tip and Near Tip Region Heat Transfer of a Gas Turbine Blade,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47(26), pp. 5651–5663. [CrossRef]
Choi, M. , Tapanlis, O. , Lewis, L. , Ciccomascolo, C. , and Gillespie, D. , 2014, “ The Effect of Impingement Jet Heat Transfer on Casing Contraction in a Turbine Case Cooling System,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26749.
Dann, A. , Thorpe, S. , Lewis, L. , and Ireland, P. , 2014, “ Innovative Measurement Techniques for a Cooled Turbine Casing Operating at Engine Representative Thermal Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26092.
Van Paridon, A. , Dann, A. , Ireland, P. , and Bacic, M. , 2015, “ Design and Development of a Full-Scale Generic Transient Heat Transfer Facility (THTF) for Air System Validation,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42391.
Corren, D. , Atkins, N. , Turner, J. , Eastwood, D. , Davies, S. , and Dixon, R. , 2010, “ An Advanced Multi-Configuration Stator Well Cooling Test Facility,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23450.
Lattime, S. , Steinetz, B. , and Robbie, M. , 2005, “ Test Rig for Evaluating Active Turbine Blade Tip Clearance Control Concepts,” J. Propul. Power, 21(3), pp. 552–563. [CrossRef]
Rolls-Royce Ltd., 2005, The Jet Engine, 5th ed., Rolls-Royce, London.
BSI, 1990, “ Steels for Pressure Purposes—Part 3: Specification for Corrosion-and Heat-Resisting Steels: Plates, Sheet and Strip,” British Standards Institute, London, UK, Standard No. BS 1501-3:1990.
Florschuetz, L. W. , Metzger, D. E. , and Truman, C. R. , 1981, “ Jet Array Impingement With Crossflow-Correlation of Streamwise Resolved Flow and Heat Transfer Distributions,” Technical Report, NASA Contractor Report No. 3373.
Goldstein, R. J. , and Seol, W. S. , 1991, “ Heat Transfer to a Row of Impinging Circular Air Jets Including the Effect of Entrainment,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34(8), pp. 2133–2147. [CrossRef]
BSI, 2000, “ Tool Steels,” British Standards Institute, London, UK, Standard No. BS EN ISO 4957:2000.
Hay, N. , and Lampard, D. , 1998, “ Discharge Coefficient of Turbine Cooling Holes: A Review,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(2), pp. 314–319. [CrossRef]
McGreehan, W. F. , and Schotsch, M. J. , 1988, “ Flow Characteristics of Long Orifices With Rotation and Corner Radiusing,” ASME J. Turbomach., 110(2), pp. 213–217. [CrossRef]
Swamee, P. K. , Ojha, C. S. P. , and Kumar, S. , 1998, “ Discharge Equation for Rectangular Slots,” J. Hydraul. Eng., 124(9), pp. 973–974. [CrossRef]
Wu, D. , Burton, R. , and Schoenau, G. , 2002, “ An Empirical Discharge Coefficient Model for Orifice Flow,” Int. J. Fluid Power, 3(3), pp. 13–18. [CrossRef]
ASM International, 1990, ASM Handbook (Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys), 10th ed., Vol. 1, American Society of Metals, Russell Township, Ohio.
Buttsworth, D. R. , and Jones, T. V. , 1997, “ Radial Conduction Effects in Transient Heat Transfer Experiments,” Aeronaut. J., 101(1005), pp. 209–212.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Traditional flight cycle closure traces with fast casing and slow rotor time constants, compared to inverted and matched relationships [1]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of a typical shrouded turbine segment cavity (adapted from Ref. [13])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Photo showing the pressure vessel and rear valve arrangement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Detail of the pressure vessel inner working section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Thermocouple position on the two impingement plate configurations. The distance A is 17 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Cross section of the engine casing showing the axial position of the thermocouples (labelled outer and inner) relative to impingement plate (shaded grey) and casing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Thermocouple fixing method to casing surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Example of the comparison of experimental (solid lines) and analytical (dashed lines) casing inner and outer temperatures for quadrant 1, plate 1b

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Computational domain of impingement system (quarter sector)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Computational grid for plate 2b: (a) fluid side of fluid-solid interface on inner casing above impingement holes and (b) symmetry surface with 15 inflation layers generated from inner surface of casing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Snapshot of nondimensional temperature θ* on metal inner surface at Fo = 0.2 for plates 1b and 2b from unsteady CHT simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Circumferential temperature uniformity for inner and outer thermocouple locations. Circumferential scale is in degrees and radial scale is in Kelvin.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Schematic of the main flows entering the impingement cavity. L1, L2, and L3 are leakage flows, m˙ is the total impingement flow, and m˙tot is the total flow out of four offtake pipes.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Sketch of the seal arrangement between impingement plates and the leakage paths, (a) cross section of full plate showing the braided seal positions A and B looking circumferentially and (b) close-up cross-sectional view showing the shim seal within the groove looking axially

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Estimation of thermocouple location uncertainty using result of unsteady CHT simulation of plate 2b at Fo = 0.48: (a) temperature map of outer casing region surrounding thermocouple location with variation of location by ±Y/d = 5 in each direction and (b) time history of thermocouple θ* and locations 1–8 illustrated in (a), where a 2.4 K difference in temperature is observed between TC and location 6 at Fo = 0.48

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Nondimensional temperature rise with respect to Fourier number for plates 1b and 2b on the inner and outer surface of the casing, with comparison of experimental and unsteady CHT simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Experimental HTCs compared to numerical HTCs for plates 1b and 2b with error bars

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Boundary conditions for transient heat conduction analysis

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In