0
Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

An Improved Rate of Heat Release Model for Modern High-Speed Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter G. Dowell, Sam Akehurst

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK

Richard D. Burke

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK
e-mail: R.D.Burke@bath.ac.uk

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 14, 2017; final manuscript received February 15, 2017; published online April 19, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(9), 092805 (Apr 19, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1057; doi: 10.1115/1.4036101 History: Received February 14, 2017; Revised February 15, 2017

To meet the increasingly stringent emissions standards, diesel engines need to include more active technologies with their associated control systems. Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) approaches are becoming popular where the engine system is represented as a real-time capable model to allow development of the controller hardware and software without the need for the real engine system. This paper focusses on the engine model required in such approaches. A number of semi-physical, zero-dimensional combustion modeling techniques are enhanced and combined into a complete model, these include—ignition delay, premixed and diffusion combustion and wall impingement. In addition, a fuel injection model was used to provide fuel injection rate from solenoid energizing signals. The model was parameterized using a small set of experimental data from an engine dynamometer test facility and validated against a complete data set covering the full engine speed and torque range. The model was shown to characterize the rate of heat release (RoHR) well over the engine speed and load range. Critically, the wall impingement model improved R2 value for maximum RoHR from 0.89 to 0.96. This was reflected in the model's ability to match both pilot and main combustion phasing, and peak heat release rates derived from measured data. The model predicted indicated mean effective pressure and maximum pressure with R2 values of 0.99 across the engine map. The worst prediction was for the angle of maximum pressure which had an R2 of 0.74. The results demonstrate the predictive ability of the model, with only a small set of empirical data for training—this is a key advantage over conventional methods. The fuel injection model yielded good results for predicted injection quantity (R2 = 0.99) and enabled the use of the RoHR model without the need for measured rate of injection.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hawley, J. G. , Wallace, F. J. , and Khalil-Arya, S. , 2003, “ A Fully Analytical Treatment of Heat Release in Diesel Engines,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 217(D8), pp. 701–717. [CrossRef]
Benajes, J. , Lujam, J. M. , Bermudez, V. , and Serrano, J. R. , 2002, “ Modelling of Turbocharged Diesel Engines in Transient Operation. Part 1: Insight Into the Relevant Physical Phenomena,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 216(5), pp. 431–441. [CrossRef]
Rakopoulos, C. , and Giakoumis, E. , 2006, “ Review of Thermodynamic Diesel Engine Simulations Under Transient Operating Conditions,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-0884.
Pacitti, G. , Amphlett, S. , Miller, P. , Norris, R. , and Truscott, A. , 2008, “ Real-Time, Crank-Resolved Engine Simulation for Testing New Engine Management Systems,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1006.
He, Y. , and Rutland, C. , 2000, “ Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Integration of Advanced Engine Simulation Methods,” ASME ICE Division Fall 2000 Technical Meeting, ASME, Peoria, IL, Sept. 23–26, pp. 53–64.
Longwic, R. C. , 2008, “ Modelling the Combustion Process in the Diesel Engine With the Use of Neural Networks,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-2446.
Papadimitriou, I. , Silvestri, J. , Warner, M. , and Despujois, B. , 2008, “ Development of Real-Time Capable Engine Plant Models for Use in HIL Systems,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-0990.
Galindo, J. , Lujan, J. M. , Serrano, J. R. , and Hernandez, L. , 2005, “ Combustion Simulation of Turbocharger HSDI Diesel Engines During Transient Operation Using Neural Networks,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 25(5–6), pp. 877–898. [CrossRef]
Wiebe, I. , 1956, Habempirische Formel fur die Verbrennungsgeschrwindigkeit, Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften der VdSSR, Moscow, Russia.
Watson, N. , Pilley, A. , and Marzouk, M. , 1980, “ A Combustion Correlation for Diesel Engine Simulation,” SAE Paper No. 800029.
Miyamoto, N. , Chikahisa, T. , Murayama, T. , and Sawyer, R. , 1985, “ Description and Analysis of Diesel Engine Rate of Combustion and Performance Using Wiebe's Functions,” SAE Paper No. 850107.
Friedrich, I. , Pucher, H. , and Offer, T. , 2006, “ Automatic Model Calibration for Engine-Process Simulation With Heat-Release Prediction,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-0655.
Pirker, G. , Chmela, F. , and Wimmer, A. , 2006, “ ROHR Simulation for DI Diesel Engines Based on Sequential Combustion Mechanisms,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-0654.
Arrègle, J. , Lopez, J. J. , Garcia, J. M. , and Fenollosa, C. , 2003, “ Development of a Zero-Dimensional Diesel Combustion Model: Part 2: Analysis of the Transient Initial and Final Diffusion Combustion Phases,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 23(11), pp. 1319–1331. [CrossRef]
Arrègle, J. , Lopez, J. J. , Garcia, J. M. , and Fenollosa, C. , 2003, “ Development of a Zero-Dimensional Diesel Combustion Model. Part 1: Analysis of the Quasi-Steady Diffusion Combustion Phase,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 23(11), pp. 1301–1317. [CrossRef]
Payri, F. , Benajes, J. , Gallindo, J. , and Serrano, J. R. , 2002, “ Modelling of Turbocharged Diesel Engines in Transient Operation. Part 2: Wave Action Models for Calculating the Transient Operation in a High Speed Direct Injection Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 216(D6), pp. 479–493. [CrossRef]
Chmela, F. , and Orthaber, G. , 1999, “ Rate of Heat Release Prediction for Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Purely Mixing Controlled Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-0186.
Lakshminarayanan, P. A. , Aghav, Y. V. , Dani, A. D. , and Mehta, P. S. , 2002, “ Accurate Prediction of the Rate of Heat Release in a Modern Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 216(D8), pp. 663–675. [CrossRef]
Wallace, F. J. , and Hawley, J. G. , 2005, “ Analysis of the Effect of Variations in Fuel Line Pressure in High-Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engines, With High-Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection Systems on Heat Release, Cylinder Pressure, Performance, and NOx Emissions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 219(D3), pp. 413–422. [CrossRef]
Magnussen, B. F. , and Hjertager, B. H. , 1977, “ On Mathematical Modeling of Turbulent Combustion With Special Emphasis on Soot Formation and Combustion,” Symp. Combust., 16(1), pp. 719–729. [CrossRef]
Dec, J. , 1997, “ A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging,” SAE Paper No. 970873.
Chmela, F. , Engelmayer, M. , Priker, G. , and Wimmer, A. , 2004, “ Prediction of Turbulence Controlled Combustion in Diesel Engines,” Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines (THIESEL 2004), Valencia, Spain, Sept. 7–10, pp. 275–288.
Stone, R. , 2012, Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines, 4th ed., Macmillan Press, Basingstoke, UK, pp. 328–331.
Assanis, D. N. , Filipi, Z. S. , Fiveland, S. B. , and Syrimis, M. , 2003, “ A Predictive Ignition Delay Correlation Under Steady-State and Transient Operation of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 125(2), pp. 450–457. [CrossRef]
Wurzenberger, J. C. , Bartsch, P. , and Katrasnik, T. , 2010, “ Crank Angle Resolved Real-Time Engine Simulation—Integrated Simulation Toolchain From Office to Testbed,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0784.
Chmela, F. G. , Pirker, G. H. , and Wimmer, A. , 2006, “ Zero-Dimensional ROHR Simulation for DI Diesel Engines—A Generic Approach,” 19th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2006), Aghia Pelagia, Greece, July 12–14, pp. 2942–2950.
Rether, D. , Grill, M. , Schmid, A. , and Bargende, M. , 2010, “ Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of CI-Combustion With Multiple Pilot- and Post Injections,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-0150.
Barba, C. , Burktardt, C. , Boulouchos, K. , and Bargende, M. , 2000, “ A Phenomenological Combustion Model for Heat Release Rate Prediction in High-Speed DI Diesel Engines With Common-Rail Injection,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-2933.
Guerrassi, N. , and Dupraz, P. , “ A Common Rail Injection System for High-Speed, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 980803.
Desantes, J. M. , Payri, R. , Salvador, F. J. , and Gimeno, J. , 2003, “ Measurements of Spray Momentum for the Study of Cavitation in Diesel Injection Nozzles,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0703.
Van Alstine, D. G. , Kocher, L. E. , Koeberlein, E. , and Shaver, G. , 2013, “ Control-Oriented Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Timing Model for a Diesel Engine Utilizing Flexible Intake Valve Modulation,” Int. J. Engine Res., 14(3), pp. 211–230. [CrossRef]
Dowell, P. D. , 2012, “ Real Time Heat Release Model of a HSDI Diesel Engine,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
Finol, C. F. , 2008, “ Heat Transfer Investigations in a Modern Diesel Engine,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
Lapuerta, M. , Armas, O. , and Hernandez, J. J. , 1999, “ Diagnostics of DI Diesel Combustion From In-Cylinder Pressure Signal by Estimation of Mean Thermodynamic Properties of the Gas,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 19(5), pp. 513–529. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Combustion modeling using Multiple Wiebe approach to capture rate of heat release profile for multiple injection events

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simulated rate of heat release showing premixed and diffusion (mixing-controlled) combustion and ignition delay (ID, ignition delay; ROI, rate of injection; and MCC, mixing controlled combustion)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Sensitivity of main combustion profile to combustion phasing: (a) correct SOC and (b) early SOC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of ignition delay for Arrhenius, Magnussen, and combined models and experimental data. Curves and measured data represent points obtained from an engine load sweep at 2500 rev/min.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Sensitivity of in-cylinder pressure to the phasing of pilot injection for an arbitrary operating point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Injector driver current split into three characteristic phases: (a) rise/cracking, (b) hold, and (c) fall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Correlation of measured fuel consumption to predicted fuel injected during various injector current phases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Normalized fuel-injection map for diesel injector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Measured injector currents for pilot and main injections at all engine loads at 2500 rev/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Model parameter optimization routine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Measured operating points highlighting subsection of points used in model parameter optimization routines for (a) ignition delay, (b) diffusion combustion, (c) premixed combustion, and (d) wall impingement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

RoHR evolution during the optimization process for engine operating condition of 2500 rpm and 125 N · m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Simulated RoHR using MCC model only at 2500 rev/min for (a) low load, (b) medium load, and (c) full load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) Predicted versus measured and (b) prediction error for main injection fuel mass

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Predicted gross heat release (black solid lines) compared to measured gross heat release (gray solid lines) with ROI indicated by the gray dotted lines for a range of engine speeds and loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Measured and predicted pilot injection ignition delay grouped by operating speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Measured and predicted main injection ignition delay grouped by operating speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Predicted versus measured gross IMEP for all test points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Pmax prediction versus measured across different load points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

RoHRmax prediction against measured across different load points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Predicted and measured point of maximum pressure across different load points

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In