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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Numerical Studies of Glow Plug Shield on Natural Gas Ignition Characteristics in a Compression-Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Kang Pan

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King’s College Road,
Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
e-mail: kangpan@mie.utoronto.ca

James S. Wallace

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King’s College Road,
Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
e-mail: wallace@mie.utoronto.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 14, 2017; final manuscript received February 19, 2017; published online April 19, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(9), 092806 (Apr 19, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1060; doi: 10.1115/1.4036293 History: Received February 14, 2017; Revised February 19, 2017

This paper presents a numerical study on fuel injection, ignition, and combustion in a direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine with ignition assisted by a shielded glow plug (GP). The shield geometry is investigated by employing different sizes of elliptical shield opening and changing the position of the shield opening. The results simulated by KIVA-3V indicated that fuel ignition and combustion is very sensitive to the relative angle between the fuel injection and the shield opening, and the use of an elliptical opening for the glow plug shield can reduce ignition delay by 0.1–0.2 ms for several specific combinations of the injection angle and shield opening size, compared to a circular shield opening. In addition, the numerical results also revealed that the natural gas ignition and flame propagation will be delayed by lowering a circular shield opening from the fuel jet center plane, due to the blocking effect of the shield to the fuel mixture, and hence, it will reduce the DING engine performance by causing a longer ignition delay.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The CFR engine (image courtesy of Daniel Chown)

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Fig. 2

Sketch of the computational combustion chamber: (a) 3D view and (b) fuel jet center plane (xy plane)

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Fig. 3

Representative engine configuration (A = 20 deg and B = −40 deg) at fuel jet center plane. Note that angles A and B are positive in the clockwise direction from the GP-injector centerline, and the diameters of injector holes (no. 1–3) are 0.3 mm.

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Fig. 4

CFR engine simulation (data courtesy of Stewart Cheng): (a) CFR engine model and (b) velocity profile at 5 deg BTDC

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Fig. 5

Illustration of the injector structure in numerical model: (a) pintle-valve model and (b) poppet-valve model

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Fig. 6

The improved glow plug model representing the real engine configuration

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Fig. 7

Side view of elliptical glow plug shield opening

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Fig. 8

Effect of elliptical opening relative dimensions on ignition delay for 0 deg shield orientation. Note that open symbols are circular opening (H/W = 1); solid symbols are elliptical openings.

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Fig. 9

Natural gas ignition at 0.27 ms after SOI for a small elliptical shield opening case (case I1-E1: 2.2 mm H). Top: equivalence ratio; bottom: temperature: (a) xy view (fuel center plane) and (b) xz view.

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Fig. 10

Flame propagation through the bottom shield opening for a small elliptical opening case (case I1-E1: 2.2 mm H): (a) 0.36 ms after SOI and (b) 0.75 ms after SOI

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Fig. 11

Simulation results for a big elliptical shield opening at 0.85 ms after SOI (case I1-E7: 7.2 mm H): (a) equivalence ratio and (b) temperature

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Fig. 12

Simulated results for a 30 deg fuel jet with a small elliptical shield opening (case I4-E1: 2.2 mm H): (a) 0.27 ms after SOI and (b) 0.75 ms after SOI

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Fig. 13

Velocity profiles at 0.27 ms after SOI for different sizes of elliptical shield opening. Top: 4.6 mm height (case I4-E4); bottom: 2.2 mm height (case I4-E1): (a) xy view and (b) xz view.

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Fig. 14

Fuel distribution near the shield opening at 0.27 ms after SOI (case I4-E4: 4.6 mm H): (a) xy view and (b) xz view

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Fig. 15

Ignition for a 30 deg fuel jet with an elliptical shield opening (case I4-E4: 4.6 mm H): (a) 0.38 ms after SOI and (b) 0.77 ms after SOI

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Fig. 16

Shield blocking effect to fuel mixture for different sizes of elliptical opening (xz view at 0.38 ms after SOI): (a) 6.4 mm height (case 14-E6) and (b) 4.6 mm height (case 14-E4)

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Fig. 17

Side view (xz view) of fuel ignition and combustion for a big elliptical shield opening (case I4-E6: 6.4 mm H): (a) 0.38 ms after SOI and (b) 0.81 ms after SOI

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Fig. 18

Simulated results for 10 deg fuel injection cases with different sizes of elliptical opening at 0.18 ms after SOI. Top: 2.2 mm height (case I2-E1); bottom: 4.6 mm height (case I2-E4): (a) velocity, (b) equivalence ratio, and (c) temperature.

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Fig. 19

Simulated results for a 10 deg injection with a small elliptical opening (case I2-E1: 2.2 mm H): (a) 0.29 ms after SOI and (b) 0.46 ms after SOI

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Fig. 20

Simulated results for a big elliptical shield opening (case I2-E4: 4.6 mm H). Top: temperature; bottom: equivalence-ratio: (a) ignition at 0.5 ms after SOI and (b) 0.78 ms after SOI.

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Fig. 21

Simulated results for 20 deg fuel injection cases with different sizes of elliptical opening at 0.18 ms after SOI. Top: 2.2 mm height (case I3-E1); bottom: 4.6 mm height (case I3-E4): (a) velocity, (b) equivalence ratio, and (c) temperature.

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Fig. 22

Simulated results for a 20 deg injection with a small elliptical shield opening (case I3-E1: 2.2 mm H): (a) 0.3 ms after SOI and (b) 0.45 ms after SOI

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Fig. 23

Natural gas ignition for an elliptical shield opening case (case I3-E4: 4.6 mm H): (a) ignition at 0.46 ms after SOI and (b) 0.52 ms after SOI

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Fig. 24

Ignition delays for a 0 deg shield opening with a diameter of 2.8 mm sitting at different positions: (a) ignition delay predicted by pressure rise (IDP) and (b) ignition delay predicted by temperature rise (IDT)

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Fig. 25

Fuel distribution and motion at 0.18 ms after SOI for 10 deg injection cases with different shield opening positions. (a) normal position (case P1-I2), (b) 1.5 mm lower (case P2-I2), and (c) 2 mm lower (case P3-I2).

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Fig. 26

Fuel ignition for a shield opening at different positions. (a) normal position (case P1-I2: 0.29 ms after SOI), (b) 1.5 mm lower (case P2-I2: 0.54 ms after SOI), and (c) 2 mm lower (case P3-I2: 1.07 ms after SOI).

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Fig. 27

Fuel ignition and combustion process for 0 deg injection cases with different shield opening positions. Top: normal position (case P1-I1); middle: 1.5 mm lower (case P2-I1); bottom: 2 mm lower (case P3-I1): (a) ignition at IDT, (b) 0.46 ms after SOI, and (c) 0.75 ms after SOI.

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Fig. 28

Side view (XZ view) of a shield opening sitting at different positions

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