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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Particulate Matter Emission Suppression Strategies in a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhang Ming

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: jimmy.zhang@magnetimarelli.com

Zhong Jun

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: jim.zhong@magnetimarelli.com

Capelli Stefano

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: stefano.capelli@magnetimarelli.com

Lubrano Luigi

Powertrain Systems,
Magneti Marelli (China) Co., Ltd.,
685 Jujin Road,
Pudong, Shanghai 201208, China
e-mail: luigi.lubrano@magnetimarelli.com

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received September 22, 2016; final manuscript received March 8, 2017; published online April 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Nadir Yilmaz.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 102801 (Apr 25, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1461; doi: 10.1115/1.4036301 History: Received September 22, 2016; Revised March 08, 2017

The development process of a down-sized turbocharged gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine/vehicle was partially introduced with the focus on particulate matter (PM)/particle number (PN) emission reduction. To achieve this goal, the injection system was upgraded to obtain higher injection pressure. Two types of prototype injectors were designed and compared under critical test conditions. Combined numerical and experimental analysis was made to select the right injector in terms of particle emission. With the selected injector, the effect of injection parameters calibration (injection pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, number of injection pulses, etc.) on PM/PN emission was illustrated. The number of fuel injection pulses, SOI timing, and injection pressure were found playing the leading role in terms of the particle emission suppression. With single-injection strategy, the injection pressure and SOI timing were found to be a dominant factor to reduce particle emission in warm-up condition and cold condition, respectively; a fine combination of injection timing and injection pressure is generally able to decrease up to 50% of PM emission in a wide range of the engine map. While with multiple injection, up to an order of magnitude PM emission reduction can be achieved. Several New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emission cycles were arranged on a demo vehicle to evaluate the effect of the injection system upgrade and adjusted calibration. This work will provide a guide for the emission control of GDI engines/vehicles fulfilling future emission legislation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the GDI engine

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Fig. 2

Specification of the GDI injectors

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Fig. 3

Characteristic PN emission of the NEDC cycle

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Fig. 4

PM emission map of the two prototype injectors under cold conditions

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Fig. 5

Equivalence ratio distribution with the prototype injectors

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Fig. 6

PM emission map of the two prototype injectors under warm conditions

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Fig. 7

PM map from different Pinj/SOI calibration

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Fig. 8

Schematic of Magneti Marelli's injection strategy

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Fig. 9

PM distribution using single injection (a), double injection (b) and (c) and triple injection (d)

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Fig. 10

The effect of multiple injection on combustion stability and PM emission

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Fig. 11

Emission test result with the demo vehicle

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