0
Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Inverse Analysis of In-Cylinder Gas-Wall Boundary Conditions: Investigation of a Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coating for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan O'Donnell

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: rodonne@g.clemson.edu

Tommy Powell

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: trpowel@g.clemson.edu

Mark Hoffman

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: mhoffm4@clemson.edu

Eric Jordan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT 06269
e-mail: jordan@engr.uconn.edu

Zoran Filipi

Department of Automotive Engineering,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607
e-mail: zfilipi@clemson.edu

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 21, 2017; final manuscript received March 13, 2017; published online May 9, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 102808 (May 09, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1075; doi: 10.1115/1.4036387 History: Received February 21, 2017; Revised March 13, 2017

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) applied to in-cylinder surfaces of a low temperature combustion (LTC) engine provide an opportunity for enhanced efficiency via two mechanisms: (i) positive impact on thermodynamic cycle efficiency due to combustion/expansion heat loss reduction, and (ii) enhanced combustion efficiency. Heat released during combustion increases the temperature gradient within the TBC layer, elevating surface temperature over combustion-relevant crank angles. Thorough characterization of this dynamic temperature “swing” at the TBC–gas interface is required to ensure accurate determination of heat transfer and the associated impact(s) on engine performance, emissions, and efficiencies. This paper employs an inverse heat conduction solver based on the sequential function specification method (SFSM) to estimate TBC surface temperature and heat flux profiles using sub-TBC temperature measurements. The authors first assess the robustness of the solution methodology ex situ, utilizing an inert, quiescent environment and a known heat flux boundary condition. The inverse solver is extended in situ to evaluate surface thermal phenomena within a TBC-treated single-cylinder, gasoline-fueled, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The resultant analysis provides crank angle resolved TBC surface temperature and heat flux profiles over a host of operational conditions. Insight derived from this work may be correlated with TBC thermophysical properties to determine the impact(s) of material selection on engine performance, emissions, heat transfer, and efficiencies. These efforts will guide next-generation TBC design.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Dec, J. E. , Hwang, W. , and Sjöberg, M. , 2006, “ An Investigation of Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-1518.
Lawler, B. , Hoffman, M. , Filipi, Z. , Güralp, O. , and Najt, P. , 2012, “ Development of a Postprocessing Methodology for Studying Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(10), p. 102801. [CrossRef]
Lawler, B. , Lacey, J. , Dronniou, N. , Dernotte, J. , Dec, J. E. , Guralp, O. , and Filipi, Z. , 2014, “ Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A Post-Processing Methodology for Determining Temperature Distributions in an Experimental HCCI Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1276.
Powell, T. , O'Donnell, R. , Killingsworth, N. , Hoffman, M. , Prucka, R. , and Filipi, Z. , “ Simulating the Gas-Wall Boundary Conditions in a Thermal Barrier Coated Low Temperature Combustion Engine,” Int. J. Powertrains (in press).
Kamo, R. , and Bryzik, W. , 1978, “ Adiabatic Turbocompound Engine Performance Prediction,” SAE Paper No. 780068.
Bryzik, W. , and Kamo, R. , 1983, “ TACOM/Cummins Adiabatic Engine Program,” SAE Paper No. 830314.
Kosaka, H. , Wakisaka, Y. , Nomura, Y. , Hotta, Y. , Koike, M. , Nakakita, K. , and Kawaguchi, A. , 2013, “ Concept of ‘Temperature Swing Heat Insulation’ in Combustion Chamber Walls, and Appropriate Thermo-Physical Properties for Heat Insulation Coat,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), pp. 142–149. [CrossRef]
Fukui, K. , Wakisaka, Y. , Nishikawa, K. , Hattori, Y. , Kosaka, H. , and Kawaguchi, A. , 2016, “ Development of Instantaneous Temperature Measurement Technique for Combustion Chamber Surface and Verification of Temperature Swing Concept,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0675.
Wakisaka, Y. , Inayoshi, M. , Fukui, K. , Kosaka, H. , Hotta, Y. , Kawaguchi, A. , and Takada, N. , 2016, “ Reduction of Heat Loss and Improvement of Thermal Efficiency by Application of ‘Temperature Swing’ Insulation to Direct-Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 9(3), pp. 1449–1459. [CrossRef]
Wimmer, A. , Pivec, R. , and Sams, T. , 2000, “ Heat Transfer to the Combustion Chamber and Port Walls of IC Engines-Measurement and Prediction,” SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0568.
Heywood, J. , 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Education, New York.
Chang, J. , Guralp, O. , Filipi, Z. , Assanis, D. N. , Kuo, T. W. , Najt, P. , and Rask, R. , 2004, “ New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived From Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-2996.
Luo, X. , Yu, X. , and Jansons, M. , 2015, “ Simultaneous In-Cylinder Surface Temperature Measurements With Thermocouple, Laser-Induced Phosphorescence, and Dual Wavelength Infrared Diagnostic Techniques in an Optical Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-1658.
Tikhonov, A. N. , and Arsenin, V. I. , 1977, Solutions of Ill-Posed Problems, Vol. 14, Winston, Washington, DC.
Beck, J. V. , Blackwell, B. , and Clair, C. R. S., Jr. , 1985, Inverse Heat Conduction: Ill-Posed Problems, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Ozisik, M. N. , 2000, Inverse Heat Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications, CRC Press, New York.
Beck, J. V. , and Arnold, K. J. , 1977, Parameter Estimation in Engineering and Science, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Beck, J. V. , 1962, “ Calculation of Surface Heat Flux From an Internal Temperature History,” ASME Paper No. 62-HT-46.
O'Donnell, R. N. , Powell, T. R. , Filipi, Z. S. , and Hoffman, M. A. , 2017, “ Estimation of Thermal Barrier Coating Surface Temperature and Heat Flux Profiles in a Low Temperature Combustion Engine Using a Modified Sequential Function Specification Approach,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 139(4), p. 041201. [CrossRef]
Hendricks, T. , and Ghandhi, J. , 2012, “ Estimation of Surface Heat Flux in IC Engines Using Temperature Measurements: Processing Code Effects,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 5(3), pp. 1268–1285. [CrossRef]
Medtherm, 2000, “ Medtherm Bulletin 500,” Medtherm Corp., Huntsville, AL.
Eilers, P. H. , 2003, “ A Perfect Smoother,” Anal. Chem., 75(14), pp. 3631–3636. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jordan, E. H. , Xie, L. , Gell, M. , Padture, N. P. , Cetegen, B. , Ozturk, A. , and Bryant, P. E. C. , 2004, “ Superior Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Solution Precursor Plasma Spray,” J. Therm. Spray Technol., 13(1), pp. 57–65. [CrossRef]
Jadhav, A. D. , Padture, N. P. , Jordan, E. H. , Gell, M. , Miranzo, P. , and Fuller, E. R. , 2006, “ Low-Thermal-Conductivity Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings With Engineered Microstructures,” Acta Mater., 54(12), pp. 3343–3349. [CrossRef]
Hoffman, M. A. , Lawler, B. J. , Filipi, Z. S. , Güralp, O. A. , and Najt, P. M. , 2014, “ Development of a Device for the Nondestructive Thermal Diffusivity Determination of Combustion Chamber Deposits and Thin Coatings,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 136(7), p. 071601. [CrossRef]
Güralp, O. , Hoffman, M. , Assanis, D. N. , Filipi, Z. , Kuo, T. W. , Najt, P. , and Rask, R. , 2006, “ Characterizing the Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits on a Gasoline HCCI Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2006-01-3277.
Overbye, V. D. , Bennethum, J. E. , Uyehara, O. A. , and Myers, P. S. , 1961, “ Unsteady Heat Transfer in Engines,” SAE Paper No. 610041.
Alkidas, A. C. , 1980, “ Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Spark-Ignition Engine,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 102(2), pp. 189–193. [CrossRef]
Kistler Instruments, 2017, “ Kistler 6125 Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer,” Kistler Group, Winterthur, Switzerland.
Blackwell, B. , and Beck, J. V. , 2010, “ A Technique for Uncertainty Analysis for Inverse Heat Conduction Problems,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(4), pp. 753–759. [CrossRef]
Najafi, H. , Woodbury, K. A. , and Beck, J. V. , 2015, “ A Filter Based Solution for Inverse Heat Conduction Problems in Multi-Layer Mediums,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 83, pp. 710–720. [CrossRef]
Woodbury, K. A. , Beck, J. V. , and Najafi, H. , 2014, “ Filter Solution of Inverse Heat Conduction Problem Using Measured Temperature History as Remote Boundary Condition,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 72, pp. 139–147. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Conceptual surface temperature profiles of metal, “traditional TBC,” and “swing TBC” engine configurations. The dynamic surface temperature enabled by the swing TBC layer tracks bulk gas temperature—reducing heat loss during late compression and expansion while avoided charge heating during intake (adapted from Ref. [4]).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

One-dimensional model of the composite TBC (ρA,CA,kA)/temperature probe (ρB,CB,kB) system. A time variant heat flux is applied at the surface boundary of the TBC. Resultant subsurface temperature profiles are recorded at the frontside (T1 at x1) and backside (T2 at x2) thermocouple junction locations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Operational schematic of the ex situ radiation chamber. An electrically powered resistive heating element generates a constant radiative heat flux of ∼0.5 MW/m2. A rotating “chopping wheel” periodically interrupts the “line of sight” between heat source and incident temperature probes, providing a dynamic heating event similar in magnitude and duration to HCCI combustion, while avoiding the turbulent reactivity of the in-cylinder environment.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Single cylinder test engine and (b) mounting location of in-cylinder temperature probes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between (a) “fuel match” and (b) “fuel match phase match” operational conditions for 1600 rpm, 10.5 mg/cycle fuel. Over 93 °C TINTAKE is required to advance combustion within the metal engine to 7 CAD aTDC, while 9% EGR is required to retard APS combustion to the same CAD for the same intake temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of direct (Fourier) and inverse (SFSM) solution methods. (a) Successful calibration of the finite difference model within the inverse solver. The SFSM also provides estimates of the TBC surface temperature (b), enabling comparison with measurements from the uncoated metal probe.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Surface heat flux (a) and temperature (b) profiles from the pulley-side head probe within the firing HCCI test engine. Operational parameters: 1200 rpm—11.7 mg fuel, 104 °C TINTAKE, 6% EGR (TBC engine only); 1600 rpm—10.5 mg fuel, 93 °C TINTAKE, 9% EGR (TBC engine only); 2000 rpm—10.3 mg fuel, 108 °C TINTAKE, 7% EGR (TBC engine only); and 2400 rpm—10.3 mg fuel, 103 °C TINTAKE, 0% EGR.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Summary of emissions and thermal efficiency (gross, indicated) for 1600 rpm FMPM operation, metal versus APS engine configurations. CO and hydrocarbon emission indices are reported in g/kgFuel, while thermal efficiency is reported as a percentage. (Note: Inclusion of the instrument and measurement uncertainties discussed in Appendix B allow the reported thermal efficiencies to range such that: 39.9 ≤ ηTh,Metal ≤ 40.55 and 41.1 ≤ ηTh,APS ≤ 41.77. Furthermore, reported emissions metrics are accurate within 0.2% and 0.05% of measured CO and HC, respectively. Thus, the reported trends remain statistically significant.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Global heat loss (both instantaneous (a) and cumulative (b)) as calculated over the 90 CADs immediately following TDC firing. The APS-treated engine shows reduced heat loss over early expansion—including the CADs spanning combustion. This retention of energy in-cylinder fosters more complete oxidation of fuel, boosting combustion efficiency, while also increasing the engine cycle's thermal efficiency.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Cylinder pressure (a) and bulk gas temperature (b) for the 2400 rpm fuel match/phase match data. Phasing for both peak pressure and peak bulk temperature events are consistent between metal and APS engine configurations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Raw sub-TBC temperature measurements for 400 consecutive cycles of radiation chamber data. (For clarity, every eighth cycle is plotted.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Phase-averaged temperature data with additional prefiltering applied. The 95% confidence interval is overlaid.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Raw sub-TBC temperature measurements collected over 500 consecutive fired engine cycles under fuel match/phase match conditions: 1200 rpm, 11.7 mg/cycle of fuel, 104 °C TIntake, 6% EGR. For clarity, every tenth cycle is plotted.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Phase-averaged engine temperature data (1200 rpm, firing, fuel match/phase match conditions) with additional prefiltering applied. The 95% confidence interval is overlaid.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Raw cylinder pressure measurements collected over 500 consecutive fired cycles under fuel match/phase match conditions: 1200 rpm, 11.7 mg/cycle of fuel, 104 °C TIntake, 6% EGR. For clarity, every tenth cycle is plotted.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Phase-averaged cylinder pressure data (1200 rpm, firing) with additional prefiltering applied. A 95% confidence interval is also shown. High-pressure region is magnified to show detail.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

SFSM versus Fourier surface heat flux results for ex situ radiation chamber temperature measurements. The SFSM results are bounded by the standard deviation (±) of the surface heat flux estimate. This interval is calculated using the filter coefficient approach described in Appendix B.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

SFSM versus Fourier surface heat flux results for in situ engine temperature measurements obtained for 1200 rpm FMPM operational conditions. SFSM results are bounded by the standard deviation (±) of the surface heat flux estimate. Note the decreased SFSM uncertainty over closed-cycle CADs.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In