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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Using a Bowed Blade to Improve the Supersonic Flow Performance in the Nozzle of a Supersonic Industrial Steam Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Hong Yao

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: hityaohong@Gmail.com

Xun Zhou

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: zhouxun@hit.edu.cn

Zhongqi Wang

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: wangzhongqi@hit.edu.cn

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 3, 2016; final manuscript received March 4, 2017; published online May 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Eric Petersen.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 102604 (May 16, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1388; doi: 10.1115/1.4036495 History: Received August 03, 2016; Revised March 04, 2017

For solar plants, waste-energy recovery, and turbogenerators, there is a considerable amount of waste energy due to low mass flow rate. Owing to the high specific power output and large pressure ratios across the turbine, a supersonic industrial steam turbine (IST) is able to utilize the waste energy associated with low mass flow rate. Supersonic IST has fewer stages than conventional turbines and a compact and modular design, thus avoiding the excessive size and manufacturing cost of conventional IST. Given their flexible operation and ability to function with loads in the range of 50–120% of the design load, supersonic IST offers significant advantages compared to conventional IST. The strong shock-wave loss caused by supersonic flows can be reduced by decreasing the shock intensity and reducing its influence; consequently, a supersonic IST can reach higher efficiency levels. Considering the demonstrated utility of bowed blades in conventional IST, this paper presents a study of the use of bowed blades in a supersonic IST. For this purpose, first, the shock-wave structure in the supersonic flow field was analyzed and compared with experimental results. Then, four different bowed blades were designed and compared with a straight blade to study the influence of bowed blades on the shock-wave structure and wetness. The results indicate that S-shaped bowing can improve the efficiency of supersonic turbines, and the energy-loss coefficient of the stators can be decreased by 2.4% or more under various operating conditions.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Surface Mach number distribution along rotor blade

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Fig. 4

Stator Schlieren pictures (left: experiment by Wolf et al. [9] and right: CFD)

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Fig. 2

Surface Mach number distribution along stator blade

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Fig. 1

Simplified grid scheme for the stator cascade

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Fig. 5

Definition of a bowed blade and shape

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Fig. 6

Energy-loss coefficient

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Fig. 7

Relative static pressure distribution in outlet for Ma2 = 1.70

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Fig. 9

Wetness distribution at the hub, mid, and tip span for Ma2is = 1.70: (a) 10% span of straight blade, (b) 50% span of straight blade, (c) 90% span of straight blade, (d) 10% span of negatively bowed blade, (e) 50% span of negatively bowed blade, (f) 90% span of negatively bowed blade, (g) 10% span of positively bowed blade, (h) 50% span of positively bowed blade, (i) 90% span of positively bowed blade, (j) 10% span of mirror S-type bowed blade, (k) 50% span of mirror S-type bowed blade, (l) 90% span of mirror S-type bowed blade, (m) 10% span of S-type bowed blade, (n) 50% span of S-type bowed blade, and (o) 90% span of S-type bowed blade

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Fig. 8

Schlieren pictures at the hub, mid, and tip span for Ma2is = 1.70: (a) 10% span of straight blade, (b) 50% span of straight blade, (c) 90% span of straight blade, (d) 10% span of negatively bowed blade, (e) 50% span of negatively bowed blade, (f) 90% span of negatively bowed blade, (g) 10% span of positively bowed blade, (h) 50% span of positively bowed blade, (i) 90% span of positively bowed blade, (j) 10% span of mirror “S”-type bowed blade, (k) 50% span of mirror S-type bowed blade, (l) 90% span of mirror S-type bowed blade, (m) 10% span of S-type bowed blade, (n) 50% span of S-type bowed blade, and (o) 90% span of S-type bowed blade

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