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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Potential of Future Thermoelectric Energy Recuperation for Aviation

[+] Author and Article Information
Christoph Bode

Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery,
University of Braunschweig,
Hermann-Blenk-Str. 37,
Braunschweig 38108, Germany
e-mail: chr.bode@ifas.tu-bs.de

Jens Friedrichs

Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery,
University of Braunschweig,
Hermann-Blenk-Str. 37,
Braunschweig 38108, Germany

Ragnar Somdalen

Institute of Thermodynamics,
University of Braunschweig,
Hans-Sommer-Str. 5,
Braunschweig 38106, Germany

Jürgen Köhler

Institute of Thermodynamics,
University of Braunschweig,
Hans-Sommer-Str. 5,
Braunschweig 38106, Germany
e-mail: j.koehler@tu-bs.de

Kai-Daniel Büchter

Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V.,
Willy-Messerschmitt-Str. 1,
Taufkirchen 82024, Germany
e-mail: kai-daniel.buechter@bauhaus-luftfahrt.net

Christoph Falter, Ulrich Kling

Bauhaus Luftfahrt e.V.,
Willy-Messerschmitt-Str. 1,
Taufkirchen 82024, Germany

Pawel Ziolkowski

Institute of Materials Research,
German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Linder Höhe,
Cologne 51147, Germany
e-mail: pawel.ziolkowski@dlr.de

Knud Zabrocki, Eckhard Müller

Institute of Materials Research,
German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Linder Höhe,
Cologne 51147, Germany

Dragan Kožulović

Department of Automotive and
Aeronautical Engineering,
Hamburg University of Applied Science,
Berliner Tor 5,
Hamburg 20099, Germany
e-mail: dragan.kozulovic@haw-hamburg.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 8, 2017; final manuscript received March 8, 2017; published online May 9, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(10), 101201 (May 09, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1049; doi: 10.1115/1.4036527 History: Received February 08, 2017; Revised March 08, 2017

Germany's Fifth Aeronautical Research Program (LuFo-V) gives the framework for the thermoelectric energy recuperation for aviation (TERA) project, which focuses on the positioning of thermoelectricity by means of a holistic reflection of technological possibilities and challenges for the adoption of thermoelectric generators (TEG) to aircraft systems. The aim of this paper is to show the project overview and some first estimations of the performance of an integrated TEG between the hot section of an engine and the cooler bypass flow. Therefore, casing integration positions close to different components are considered such as high-pressure turbine (HPT), low-pressure turbine (LPT), nozzle, or one of the interducts, where the temperature gradients are high enough for efficient TEG function. TEG efficiency is then to be optimized by taking into account occurring thermal resistance, heat transfer mechanisms, efficiency factors, as well as installation and operational system constrains like weight and space.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Applied mission profile (top) and diversion flight profile (bottom)

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Fig. 2

Typical casing temperature profile of an aeroengine with high bypass ratio

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Fig. 3

Basic configuration of a TEG module: single thermocouple as a basic TEG unit (a) and schematic of a TEG containing multiple thermocouples, metallic bridges, and ceramic cover plates (b)

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Fig. 4

Potential estimation of thermoelectric generators. The design space is limited on the one hand by thermoelectric figure of merit and on the other hand by the maximum feasible temperature difference.

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Fig. 5

Thermal block model of the TEG heat exchanger including nozzle sheets (left) and thermal circuit diagram including convection in air paths (right)

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Fig. 6

Sketch of nozzle including TEG and relevant geometry parameters (left) and qualitative temperature distribution of core stream, nozzle, and bypass stream (right)

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Fig. 7

Simplified turbine model for estimation of efficiency and power potentials of TEG deployment

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Fig. 8

Temperature gradient and heat flux through one layer of TEG's in the five sections of the aircraft engine as calculated with a primary model

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Fig. 9

Estimation of TSFC improvements as a function of per-engine offtake power for initial performance study

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Fig. 10

Relative mission fuel improvement using thermoelectric generators as a function of specific power densities and assumed weights. The curves level off when the generator provides sufficient electrical power to replace the mechanical counterpart completely.

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