Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Quasi-Dimensional Diesel Engine Combustion Modeling With Improved Diesel Spray Tip Penetration, Ignition Delay, and Heat Release Submodels

[+] Author and Article Information
Shuonan Xu, Zoran Filipi

Automotive Engineering Department,
Clemson University,
Greenville, SC 29607

Hirotaka Yamakawa, Keiya Nishida

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Hiroshima University,
Hiroshima 739-0046, Japan

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 15, 2017; final manuscript received March 15, 2017; published online June 6, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(11), 112802 (Jun 06, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1067; doi: 10.1115/1.4036575 History: Received February 15, 2017; Revised March 15, 2017

Increasingly stringent fuel economy and CO2 emission regulations provide a strong impetus for development of high-efficiency engine technologies. Diesel engines dominate the heavy duty market and significant segments of the global light duty market due to their intrinsically higher thermal efficiency compared to spark-ignited (SI) engine counterparts. Predictive simulation tools can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with optimization of engine injection strategies, and enable investigation over a broad operating space unconstrained by availability of prototype hardware. In comparison with 0D/1D and 3D simulations, Quasi-Dimensional (quasi-D) models offer a balance between predictiveness and computational effort, thus making them very suitable for enhancing the fidelity of engine system simulation tools. A most widely used approach for diesel engine applications is a multizone spray and combustion model pioneered by Hiroyasu and his group. It divides diesel spray into packets and tracks fuel evaporation, air entrainment, gas properties, and ignition delay (induction time) individually during the injection and combustion event. However, original submodels are not well suited for modern diesel engines, and the main objective of this work is to develop a multizonal simulation capable of capturing the impact of high-injection pressures and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). In particular, a new spray tip penetration submodel is developed based on measurements obtained in a high-pressure, high-temperature constant volume combustion vessel for pressures as high as 1450 bar. Next, ignition delay correlation is modified to capture the effect of reduced oxygen concentration in engines with EGR, and an algorithm considering the chemical reaction rate of hydrocarbon–oxygen mixture improves prediction of the heat release rates. Spray and combustion predictions were validated with experiments on a single-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, charge boosting, and EGR.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


EPA, and NHTSA, 2011, “ Final Rulemaking to Establish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles,” United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Report No. EPA-420-R-11-901.
Filipi, Z. S. , and Assanis, D. N. , 1991, “ Quasi-Dimensional Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engine and Its Use for 2- and 4-Valve Engine Matching Studies,” SAE Paper No. 910075.
Zhang, G. , Filipi, Z. , and Assanis, D. N. , 1997, “ A Flexible, Reconfigurable, Transient Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulation for System Dynamics Studies,” J. Struct. Mech., 25(3), pp. 357–378.
Filipi, Z. , Wang, Y. , and Assanis, D. , 2004, “ Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) Strategies for Improving Diesel Engine In-Vehicle Response: A Simulation Study,” Int. J. Heavy Veh. Syst., 11(3), pp. 303–326. [CrossRef]
Vibe, I. , 1956, “ Semi-Empirical Expression for Combustion Rate in Engines,” Conference on Piston Engines, Moscow, Russia, pp. 185–191.
Xu, S. , Anderson, D. , Singh, A. , Hoffman, M. , Prucka, R. , and Filipi, Z. , 2014, “ Development of a Phenomenological Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Diesel Engine Simulation and Its Use for Analysis of Transient Operations,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 7(4), pp. 1665–1673. [CrossRef]
Amsden, A. A. , 1997, “ KIVA-3V: A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines With Vertical or Canted Valves,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.
Jasak, H. , Luo, J. , Kaludercic, B. , Gosman, A. , Echtle, H. , Liang, Z. , Wirbeleit, F. , Ag, D.-B. , Wierse, M. , and Rips, S. , 1999, “ Rapid CFD Simulation of Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Paper No. 1999-01-1185.
Reitz, R. , and Rutland, C. , 1995, “ Development and Testing of Diesel Engine CFD Models,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 21(2), pp. 173–196. [CrossRef]
Bai, C. , and Gosman, A. , 1995, “ Development of Methodology for Spray Impingement Simulation,” SAE Paper No. 0148-7191.
Amsden, A. , Ramshaw, J. , O'Rourke, P. , and Dukowicz, J. , 1985, “ KIVA: A Computer Program for Two-and Three-Dimensional Fluid Flows With Chemical Reactions and Fuel Sprays,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.
Som, S. , 2009, “ Development and Validation of Spray Models for Investigating Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions,” University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL.
Payri, F. , Benajes, J. , Margot, X. , and Gil, A. , 2004, “ CFD Modeling of the In-Cylinder Flow in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines,” Comput. Fluids, 33(8), pp. 995–1021. [CrossRef]
Splitter, D. , Hanson, R. , Kokjohn, S. , and Reitz, R. , 2011, “ Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid- and High-Loads With Conventional and Alternative Fuels,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0363.
Hiroyasu, H. , 1985, “ Diesel Engine Combustion and Its Modeling,” First International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA), Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 4–6, pp. 53–75.
Hiroyasu, H. , and Kadota, T. , 1976, “ Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in Direct Injection Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper No. 760129.
Jung, D. , and Assanis, D. N. , 2001, “ Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1246.
Minato, A. , and Shimazaki, N. , 2011, “ Development of the Total Engine Simulation System (TESS) and Its Application for System Investigation of Future Diesel Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 1708–1723. [CrossRef]
Schihl, P. , Bryzik, W. , and Atreya, A. , 1996, “ Analysis of Current Spray Penetration Models and Proposal of a Phenomenological Cone Penetration Model,” SAE Paper No. 960773.
Kanno, T. , Zama, Y. , Kakehashi, N. , Ishima, T. , and Furuhata, T. , 2015, “ Study on Empirical Formula for Spray Tip Penetration of Diesel Spray Under High Ambient Gas Density Conditions,” 13th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Tainan, Taiwan, Aug. 23–27.
Dec, J. E. , 2009, “ Advanced Compression-Ignition Engines—Understanding the In-Cylinder Processes,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 2727–2742. [CrossRef]
Hiroyasu, H. , and Arai, M. , 1980, “ Fuel Spray Penetration and Spray Angle in Diesel Engines,” Trans. JSAE, 21(5), p. 11.
Hiroyasu, H. , Arai, M. , and Tabata, M. , 1989, “ Empirical Equations for the Sauter Mean Diameter of a Diesel Spray,” SAE Paper No. 890464.
Kadota, T. , and Hiroyasu, H. , 1976, “ Evaporation of a Single Droplet at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures: 2nd Report, Theoretical Study,” Bull. JSME, 19(138), pp. 1515–1521. [CrossRef]
Watson, N. , Pilley, A. , and Marzouk, M. , 1980, “ A Combustion Correlation for Diesel Engine Simulation,” SAE Paper No. 800029.
Kobori, S. , Kamimoto, T. , and Aradi, A. , 2000, “ A Study of Ignition Delay of Diesel Fuel Sprays,” Int. J. Eng. Res., 1(1), pp. 29–39. [CrossRef]
Wolfer, H. H. , 1938, “ Ignition Lag in Diesel Engines,” VDI-Forschungsh., 392, p. 621-436.047.
Assanis, D. , Filipi, Z. , Fiveland, S. , and Syrimis, M. , 1999, “ A Predictive Ignition Delay Correlation Under Steady-State and Transient Operation of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 125(2), pp. 450–457. [CrossRef]
Kadota, T. , Hiroyasu, H. , and Oya, H. , 1976, “ Spontaneous Ignition Delay of a Fuel Droplet in High Pressure and High Temperature Gaseous Environments,” Bull. JSME, 19(130), pp. 437–445. [CrossRef]
Sazhina, E. , Sazhin, S. , Heikal, M. , and Marooney, C. , 1999, “ The Shell Autoignition Model: Applications to Gasoline and Diesel Fuels,” Fuel, 78(4), pp. 389–401. [CrossRef]
Halstead, M. , Kirsch, L. , and Quinn, C. , 1977, “ The Autoignition of Hydrocarbon Fuels at High Temperatures and Pressures—Fitting of a Mathematical Model,” Combust. Flame, 30, pp. 45–60. [CrossRef]
Inagaki, K. , Mizuta, J. , Fuyuto, T. , Hashizume, T. , Ito, H. , Kuzuyama, H. , Kawae, T. , and Kono, M. , 2011, “ Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray With Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 2065–2079. [CrossRef]
Heywood, J. B. , 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Westbrook, C. K. , and Dryer, F. L. , 1981, “ Simplified Reaction Mechanisms for the Oxidation of Hydrocarbon Fuels in Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 27(1–2), pp. 31–43. [CrossRef]
Ebersole, G. D. , Myers, P. , and Uyehara, O. , 1963, “ The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer,” SAE Paper No. 630148.
Flynn, P. , Mizusawa, M. , Uyehara, O. A. , and Myers, P. S. , 1972, “ An Experimental Determination of the Instantaneous Potential Radiant Heat Transfer Within an Operating Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 720022.
Woschni, G. , 1967, “ A Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Paper No. 670931.
Annand, W. , and Ma, T. , 1970, “ Second Paper: Instantaneous Heat Transfer Rates to the Cylinder Head Surface of a Small Compression-Ignition Engine,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 185(1), pp. 976–987. [CrossRef]
Assanis, D. N. , and Heywood, J. B. , 1986, “ Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies,” SAE Paper No. 860329.
Gordon, S. , and McBride, B. J. , 1976, “ Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA-SP-273.
Bowman, C. T. , 1975, “ Kinetics of Pollutant Formation and Destruction in Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 1(1), pp. 33–45. [CrossRef]
Lavoie, G. A. , Heywood, J. B. , and Keck, J. C. , 1970, “ Experimental and Theoretical Study of Nitric Oxide Formation in Internal Combustion Engines,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 1(4), pp. 313–326. [CrossRef]
Westenberg, A. , 1971, “ Kinetics of NO and CO in Lean, Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 4(1), pp. 59–64. [CrossRef]
Westbrook, C. K. , and Dryer, F. L. , 1984, “ Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrocarbon Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 10(1), pp. 1–57. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Spatial illustration of spray modeling scheme—defining the packets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Definition of packets in a spray (X–Z plane)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of quasi-D multizone spray-combustion simulation process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Optical experiment setup for measuring spray tip penetration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between Hiroyasu–Arai spray tip penetration model and experimental data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison between improved spray tip penetration model and experimental data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Validation of improved spray tip penetration correlation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Geometrical configuration of tested engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Cylinder pressure from experiment measurement. Two engine speed and load points are shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Apparent heat release rate derived from measured cylinder pressure data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Detection of start of combustion using second derivative of cylinder pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison between the prediction results from existing ignition delay model and experimental data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Least-square fit of the ignition delay model coefficients

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison between the prediction results from improved ignition delay model and experimental data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Validation of simulation with experimental data at low speed low load conditions: (a) without EGR and (b) with EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Validation of simulation with experiment data at high speed high load conditions: (a) without EGR and (b) with EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison between simulation results from the model developed in this work and the model from Hiroyasu's framework

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Simulated temperature history in individual packets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Simulated temperature history of burned, unburned, and bulk gas temperatures: (a) low speed low load and (b) high speed high load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Simulated heat transfer rate and high speed high load without EGR

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Simulated NOx formation history: (a) low speed low load and (b) high speed high load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Comparison between simulation predicted NOx concentration and experiment data




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In