0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Performance of a Laser Ignited Multicylinder Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Bader Almansour

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
4000 Central Florida Boulevard,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: bader@knights.ucf.edu

Subith Vasu

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
4000 Central Florida Boulevard,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: subith@ucf.edu

Sreenath B. Gupta

Argonne National Laboratory,
362-G212, 9700 South Cass Avenue,
Lemont, IL 60439
e-mail: sgupta@anl.gov

Qing Wang

Princeton Optronics, Inc.,
1 Electronics Drive,
Mercerville, NJ 08619
e-mail: qwang@princetonoptronics.com

Robert Van Leeuwen

Princeton Optronics, Inc.,
1 Electronics Drive,
Mercerville, NJ 08619
e-mail: rleeuwen@princetonoptronics.com

Chuni Ghosh

Princeton Optronics, Inc.,
1 Electronics Drive,
Mercerville, NJ 08619
e-mail: cghosh@princetonoptronics.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 3, 2016; final manuscript received April 19, 2017; published online June 6, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Eric Petersen.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(11), 111501 (Jun 06, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1480; doi: 10.1115/1.4036621 History: Received October 03, 2016; Revised April 19, 2017

Market demands for lower fueling costs and higher specific powers in stationary natural gas engines have engine designs trending toward higher in-cylinder pressures and leaner combustion operation. However, ignition remains as the main limiting factor in achieving further performance improvements in these engines. Addressing this concern, while incorporating various recent advances in optics and laser technologies, laser igniters were designed and developed through numerous iterations. Final designs incorporated water-cooled, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG microlasers that were optimized for stable operation under harsh engine conditions. Subsequently, the microlasers were installed in the individual cylinders of a lean-burn, 350 kW, inline six-cylinder, open-chamber, spark ignited engine, and tests were conducted. The engine was operated at high-load (298 kW) and rated speed (1800 rpm) conditions. Ignition timing (IT) sweeps and excess-air ratio (λ) sweeps were performed while keeping the NOx emissions below the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated value (brake-specific NOx (BSNOx) < 1.34 g/kW h), and while maintaining ignition stability at industry acceptable values (coefficient of variation of integrated mean effective pressure (COV_IMEP) < 5%). Through such engine tests, the relative merits of (i) standard electrical ignition system and (ii) laser ignition system were determined. A rigorous combustion data analysis was performed and the main reasons leading to improved performance in the case of laser ignition were identified.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Ikeda, Y. , Nishiyama, A. , Katano, H. , Kaneko, M. , and Jeong, H., 2009, “ Research and Development of Microwave Plasma Combustion Engine (Part II: Engine Performance of Plasma Combustion Engine),” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1049.
Pineda, D. I. , Wolk, B. , Sennott, T. , Chen, J.-Y. , and Dibble, R. W. , 2015, “ Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in a Lean Methane-Air Mixture,” Third Laser Ignition Conference (LIC), Argonne, IL, Apr. 27–30, Paper No. T5A.2.
Schenk, A. , Rixecker, D. G. , and Bohne, S. , 2015, “ Results From Gasoline and CNG Engine Tests With the Corona Ignition System EcoFlash,” Third Laser Ignition Conference (LIC), Argonne, IL, Apr. 27–30, Paper No. W4A.4.
Grey Morgan, C. , 1978, “ Laser-Induced Breakdown of Gases,” Rep. Prog. Phys., 38(5), pp. 621–665. [CrossRef]
Bradley, D. , Sheppard, C. G. W. , Suradjaja, I . M. , and Woolley, R. , 2004, “ Fundamentals of High-Energy Spark Ignition With Lasers,” Combust. Flame, 138(1), pp. 55–77. [CrossRef]
Lorenz, S. , Bärwinkel, M. , Heinz, P. , Lehmann, S. , Mühlbauer, W. , and Brüggemann, D. , 2015, “ Characterization of Energy Transfer for Passively Q-Switched Laser Ignition,” Opt. Express, 23(3), pp. 2647–2659. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Endo, T. , Takenaka, Y. , Sako, Y. , Johzaki, T. , Namba, S.-I. , and Shimokuri, D. , 2017, “ An Experimental Study on the Ignition Ability of a Laser-Induced Gaseous Breakdown,” Combust. Flame, 178, pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Ghosh, S. , and Mahesh, K. , 2008, “ Numerical Simulation of the Fluid Dynamic Effects of Laser Energy Deposition in Air,” J. Fluid Mech., 605, pp. 329–354. [CrossRef]
Phuoc, T. X. , 2006, “ Laser-Induced Spark Ignition Fundamental and Applications,” Opt. Lasers Eng., 44(5), pp. 351–397. [CrossRef]
Bihari, B. , Gupta, S. B. , Sekar, R. R. , Gingrich, J. , and Smith, J. , 2005, “ Development of Advanced Laser Ignition System for Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines,” ASME Paper No. ICEF2005-1325.
Joshi, S. , Yalin, A. P. , and Galvanauskas, A. , 2007, “ Use of Hollow Core Fibers, Fiber Lasers, and Photonic Crystal Fibers for Spark Delivery and Laser Ignition in Gases,” Appl. Opt., 46(19), pp. 4057–4064. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yalin, A. P. , 2013 “ High Power Fiber Delivery for Laser Ignition Applications,” Opt. Express, 21(S6), pp. A1102–A1112. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tsunekane, M. , Inohara, T. , Ando, A. , Kido, N. , Kanehara, K. , and Taira, T. , 2010, “ High Peak Power, Passively Q-Switched Microlaser for Ignition of Engines,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 46(2), pp. 277–284. [CrossRef]
Gupta, S. B. , Bihari, B. , and Sekar, R. , 2014, “ Performance of a 6-Cylinder Natural Gas Engine on Laser Ignition,” Second Laser Ignition Conference, Yokohama, Japan, Apr. 22–25, Paper No. LIC6–3.
Schwarz, J. , Wörner, P. , Stoppel, K. , Nübel, K.-H. , and Engelhardt, J. , 2014, “ Pumping Concepts for Laser Spark Plugs—Requirements, Options, Solutions,” Second Laser Ignition Conference, Yokohama, Japan, Apr. 22–25, Paper No. LIC3-3.
Van Leeuwen, R. , Xu, B. , Chen, T. , Wang, Q. , Seurin, J.-F. , Xu, G. , Zhou, D. , and Ghosh, C. , 2016, “ VCSEL-Pumped Passively Q-Switched Monolithic Solid-State Lasers,” SPIE 9726, Solid State Lasers XXV: Technology and Devices, Paper No. 97260U.
Biruduganti, M. , Gupta, S. B. , Bihari, B. , Kanehara, K. , Polcyn, N. , and Hwang, J. , 2015, “ Performance Evaluation of a DENSO Developed Micro-Laser Ignition System on a Natural Gas Research Engine,” Third Laser Ignition Conference (LIC), Argonne, IL, Apr. 27–30, Paper No. T5A.4.
Tsunekane, M. , Inohara, T. , Kanehara, K. , and Taira, T. , 2010, “ Micro-Solid-State-Laser for Ignition of Automobile Engines,” Advances in Solid State Lasers: Development and Applications, M. Grishin , ed., INTECH, Croatia, pp. 195–212.
Sjöberg, M. , and Zeng, W. , 2016, “ Combined Effects of Fuel and Dilution Type on Efficiency Gains of Lean Well-Mixed DISI Engine Operation With Enhanced Ignition and Intake Heating for Enabling Mixed-Mode Combustion,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 9(2), pp. 750–767. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and (b) photograph of the laser igniter equipped with water-cooled VCSEL pumped microlaser

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

View of (left) standard spark ignition systems, (right) laser ignition system as seen from cylinder#1 of the engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Efficiency, COV_IMEP and BSNOx variation with ignition timing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(left) BSNOx versus brake thermal efficiency tradeoff, (right) COV_IMEP versus brake thermal efficiency. Allowable limits for NOx emissions and ignition stability are marked with horizontal red arrows (see figure online for color).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Rate of heat release in cylinder#4 for SI and 2P-LI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Ignition delay, (b) combustion duration, and (c) MFB50% in cylinder#4 for SI and 2P-LI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

ROHR plots for the optimal operational point with the use of 2P-LI

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Brake-specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and brake-specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) emissions for SI (λ = 1.6) and 2P-LI (λ = 1.68). Circles mark the ideal conditions for either ignition system.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In