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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Jet Engine Gas Path Analysis Based on Takeoff Performance Snapshots

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Putz

Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 6,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: andreas.putz@mail.de

S. Staudacher

Professor
Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 6,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: stephan.staudacher@ila.uni-stuttgart.de

C. Koch

Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 6,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: christian.koch@ila.uni-stuttgart.de

T. Brandes

Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Pfaffenwaldring 6,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: tim.brandes@ila.uni-stuttgart.de

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received December 5, 2016; final manuscript received May 21, 2017; published online June 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Liang Tang.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(11), 111201 (Jun 21, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1568; doi: 10.1115/1.4036954 History: Received December 05, 2016; Revised May 21, 2017

Current engine condition monitoring (ECM) systems for jet engines include the analysis of on-wing gas path data using steady-state performance models. Such data, which are also referred to as performance snapshots, usually are taken during cruise flight and during takeoff. Using steady-state analysis, it is assumed that these snapshots have been taken under stabilized operating conditions. However, this assumption is reasonable only for cruise snapshots. During takeoff, jet engines operate in highly transient conditions with significant heat transfer occurring between the fluid and the engine structure. Hence, steady-state analysis of takeoff snapshots is subject to high uncertainty. Because of this, takeoff snapshots are not used for performance analysis in current ECM systems. We quantify the analysis uncertainty by transient simulation of a generic takeoff maneuver using a performance model of a medium size two-shaft turbofan engine with high bypass ratio. Taking into account the influence of the preceding operating regimes on the transient heat transfer effects, this takeoff maneuver is extended backward in time to cover the aircraft turnaround as well as the end of the last flight mission. We present a hybrid approach for thermal calculation of both the fired engine and the shutdown engine. The simulation results show that takeoff derate, ambient temperature, taxi-out (XO) duration and the duration of the preceding aircraft turnaround have a major influence on the transient effects occurring during takeoff. The analysis uncertainty caused by the transient effects is significant. Based on the simulation results, we propose a method for correction of takeoff snapshots to steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, we show that the simultaneous analysis of cruise and corrected takeoff snapshots leads to significant improvements in observability.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Analyzed HPT flow coefficient changes of a real turbofan engine based on (a) cruise and (b) takeoff snapshots

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Fig. 2

Operating regimes preceding the acquisition of a takeoff snapshot

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Fig. 3

Simplified representation of an engine module used to compute the heat transfer occurring during acceleration and deceleration maneuvers

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Fig. 4

Validation results of the heat transfer model of the fired engine

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Fig. 5

Schematic representation of the replacement structure for the shutdown engine

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Fig. 6

Schematic representation of conductive heat transfer between two bodies

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Fig. 7

Simplified geometry for computation of the radiative heat transfer within the annulus

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Fig. 8

Network representation of the radiative heat transfer within the annulus

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Fig. 9

Simplified geometry for computation of the free convection within the annuli of the engine core and the bypass

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Fig. 10

Variation of the transient tip clearance of the HPT during the extended takeoff maneuver

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Fig. 11

Definition of the quantities for evaluation of the magnitude and the timing of the transient effects during takeoff

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Fig. 12

Influence of ambient temperature and derate parameter on the value and timing of the maximum TGT during takeoff

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Fig. 13

Maximum influence of taxi-out-duration and turnaround duration on the value and timing of the maximum TGT during takeoff

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Fig. 14

Evolution of the HPT tip clearance during engine start-up, taxi-out, and takeoff for the lower and upper extreme values of the taxi-out-duration

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Fig. 15

Temperature change of the engine structure during turnaround

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Fig. 16

Analysis uncertainty of takeoff snapshots due to transient effects

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Fig. 17

Process for correction of takeoff snapshots to steady-state conditions

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Fig. 18

Analysis results of the Monte Carlo simulation using matching scheme 1

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Fig. 19

Iterative calibration of the baseline correction method

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Fig. 20

Exemplary results of an iterative calibration

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