0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Characteristics of a Spherical-Seat TPJB With Four Methods of Directed Lubrication—Part I: Thermal and Static Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
David M. Coghlan

Flint Hills Resources,
Joliet, IL 60410
e-mail: coghlan3@gmail.com

Dara W. Childs

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: dchilds@tamu.edu

Contributed by the Structures and Dynamics Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received April 27, 2017; final manuscript received May 11, 2017; published online August 23, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(12), 122502 (Aug 23, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1152; doi: 10.1115/1.4036969 History: Received April 27, 2017; Revised May 11, 2017

Static and thermal characteristics (measured and predicted) are presented for a four-pad, spherical-seat, tilting-pad journal bearing (TPJB) with 0.5 pivot offset, 0.6 L/D, 101.6 mm nominal diameter, and 0.3 preload in the load-between-pivots orientation. One bearing is tested four separate times in the following four different lubrication configurations: (1) flooded single-orifice (SO) at the bearing shell, (2) evacuated leading edge groove (LEG), (3) evacuated spray-bar blocker (SBB), and (4) evacuated spray-bar (SB). The LEG, SBB, and SB are all considered methods of “directed lubrication.” These methods rely on lubrication injected directly to the pad/rotor interface. The same set of pads is used for every test to maintain clearance and preload; each method of lubrication is added as an assembly to the bearing. Test conditions include surface speeds and unit loads up to 85 m/s and 2.9 MPa, respectively. Static data include rotor–bearing eccentricities and attitude angles. Thermal data include measured temperatures from 16 bearing thermocouples. Twelve of the bearing thermocouples are embedded in the babbitt layer of the pads, while the remaining four are oriented at the leading and trailing edge of the loaded pads exposed to the lubricant. Bearing thermocouples provide a circumferential and axial temperature gradient. The pivot stiffness (pad and pivot in series) is measured and incorporated into predictions.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

San Andrés, L. , 2010, “ Modern Lubrication Theory, ‘Static Load Performance of Plain Journal Bearings,’ Notes 4,” Texas A&M University Digital Libraries, College Station, TX, accessed Sept. 9, 2013, http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/93244
Nicholas, J. C. , 1994, “ Tilting Pad Bearing Design,” 23rd Turbomachinery Symposium, Dallas, TX, Sept. 13–15, pp. 179–194 http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/turboproc/T23/T23179-194.pdf.
Nicholas, J. C. , 1998, “ Pad Bearing Assembly With Fluid Spray and Blocker Bar,” Rotating Machinery Technology, Inc., Bethlehem, PA, U.S. Patent No. US 5738447 A. https://www.google.ch/patents/US5738447
Sasaki, T. , Morii, S. , Takenaga, H. , and Tsutsumi, M. , 1991, “ New Technology on High Performance and Reliability of Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines,” 20th Turbomachinery Symposium, College Station, TX, Sept. 17–19, pp. 145–154. http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/turboproc/T20/T20145-154.pdf
Tanaka, M. , 1991, “ Thermohydrodynamic Performance of a Tilting Pad Journal Bearing With Spot Lubrication,” ASME J. Tribol., 113(3), pp. 615–619. [CrossRef]
Nicholas, J. C. , 2003, “ Tilting Pad Journal Bearings With Spray-Bar Blockers and By-Pass Cooling for High Speed, High Load Applications,” 32nd Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 8–11, pp. 179–194. http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/turboproc/T32/t32-05.pdf
DeCamillo, S. , and Brockwell, K. , 2001, “ A Study of Parameters That Affect Pivoted Shoe Journal Bearing Performance in High-Speed Turbomachinery,” 30th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 17–20, pp. 9–22. http://www.kingsbury.com/pdf/Parameters%20Affecting%20PSJB%20Performance.pdf
Nicholas, J. C. , 2002, “ Sleeve Bearing With Bypass Cooling,” Rotating Machinery Technology, Inc., Bethlehem, PA, U.S. Patent No. US 6485182 B2. http://www.google.co.in/patents/US6485182
Harris, J. M. , 2008, “ Static Characteristics and Rotordynamic Coefficients of a Four-Pad Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing With Ball-In-Socket Pivots in Load-Between-Pad Configuration,” MS thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-3194.1/HARRIS-THESIS.pdf?sequence=1
Dmochowski, W. , Brockwell, K. , DeCamillo, S. , and Mikula, A. , 1993, “ A Study of the Thermal Characteristics of the Leading Edge Groove and Conventional Tilting Pad Journal Bearing,” ASME J. Tribol., 115(2), pp. 219–226. [CrossRef]
Brockwell, K. , Dmochowski, W. , and DeCamillo, S. , 1994, “ Analysis and Testing of the LEG Tilting Pad Journal Bearing—A New Design for Increasing Load Capacity, Reducing Operating Temperatures and Conserving Energy,” 23rd Turbomachinery Symposium, Dallas, TX, Sept. 8–11, pp. 43–56.
Harangozo, A. V. , Stolarski, T. A. , and Gozdawa, R. J. , 1991, “ The Effect of Different Lubrication Methods on the Performance of a Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 34(4), pp. 529–536. [CrossRef]
Coghlan, D. , and Childs, D. , 2015, “ Characteristics of a Spherical Seat TPJB With Four Methods of Directed Lubrication—Part 2: Rotordynamic Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42336.
Kaul, A. , 1999, “ Design and Development of a Test Setup for the Experimental Determination of the Rotordynamic and Leakage Characteristics of Annular Bushing Oil Seals,” MS thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Glienicke, J. , 1966, “ Experimental Investigation of the Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Turbine Bearings and Their Application to Instability Predictions,” Proc. Int. Mech. Eng., 181(2), pp. 116–129.
Dmochowski, W. M. , and Blair, B. , 2006, “ Effect of Oil Evacuation on the Static and Dynamic Properties of Tilting Pad Journal Bearings,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 49(4), pp. 536–544. [CrossRef]
San Andrés, L. , and Tao, Y. , 2013, “ The Role of Pivot Stiffness on the Dynamic Force Coefficients of Tilting Pad Journal Bearings,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(11), p. 112505. [CrossRef]
Tschoepe, D. P. , 2012, “ Measurements Versus Predictions for the Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Four-Pad, Rocker-Pivot, Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing,” MS thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/148049/Tschoepe.pdf?sequence=1
Wygant, K. D. , Flack, R. D. , and Barrett, L. E. , 1999, “ Influence of Pad Pivot Friction on Tilting-Pad Journal Bearing Measurements—Part I: Steady Operating Position,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 42(1), pp. 210–215. [CrossRef]
Pettinato, B. , and De Choudhury, P. , 1999, “ Test Results of Key and Spherical Pivot Five-Shoe Tilt Pad Journal Bearings—Part I: Performance Measurements,” STLE Tribol. Trans., 42(3), pp. 541–547. [CrossRef]
Wygant, K. D. , 2001, “ The Influence of Negative Preload and Non-Synchronous Excitations on the Performance of Tilting Pad Journal Bearings,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=5240373
API, 2000, “ Machinery Protection Systems,” American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC, 4th ed., Standard No. 670. http://www.api.org/~/media/files/publications/whats%20new/670_e5%20pa.pdf

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Four-pad spherical-seat TPJB

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Thermal mixing and hot oil carry-over

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SO feed type (conventional)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Seal arrangement used by Nicholas and Harris—adapted from Ref. [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Side view of bearing test rig. (1) Air turbine, (2) coupling, (3) test rotor, (4) hydraulic hub, (5) bearing housing, (6) hydraulic shaker, (7) pitch stabilizer, (8) shaker mounting frame, (9) pedestal, (10) ball bearing, (11) test rig base, (12) pulley, and (13) test oil outlet.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Front view of test rig from the nondrive end

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Hydraulic shaker setup for bearing excitation. (1) Hydraulic shaker, (2) force transducer, (3) stinger, (4) accelerometer, (5) eddy-current probe, and (6) location of stator thermocouple.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Flooded configuration with labyrinth end seals installed (nominal end seal bore 101.93 mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Evacuated configuration (with pad retainers)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Bearing thermocouple layout viewed from drive end (babbitt layer and exposed)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Measured bearing cold clearance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Recreation of crushed Harris [9] clearance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Measured cold clearance and circular clearance estimate for each bearing configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Journal loci at 38 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Journal loci at 53 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Journal loci at 69 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Journal loci at 85 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

X-eccentricity as a function of load at 38 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

X-eccentricity as a function of load at 53 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

X-eccentricity as a function of load at 69 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

X-eccentricity as a function of load at 85 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Attitude angle as a function of load at 38 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Attitude angle as a function of load at 53 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Attitude angle as a function of load at 69 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Attitude angle as a function of load at 85 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 29

Temperature profiles for the loaded pads with a unit load of 2.1 MPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 30

Pad C (second loaded pad) at 0.7 MPa—measured temperature rise at the babbitt leading edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 31

Pad C (second loaded pad) at 0.7 MPa—measured temperature rise at the 75% babbitt location

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 32

Pad C (second loaded pad) at 0.7 MPa—measured temperature rise at the babbitt trailing edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 33

Maximum temperature rise at 0.7 MPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 34

Maximum temperature rise at 2.1 MPa

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 35

Maximum temperature rise at 2.9 MPa

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In