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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Detached Eddy Simulation Simulation of Asymmetrical Flow in a High Pressure Diesel Injector

[+] Author and Article Information
Russell Prater

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292

Yongsheng Lian

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: yongsheng.lian@louisville.edu

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received November 10, 2016; final manuscript received June 17, 2017; published online July 19, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(11), 112805 (Jul 19, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1529; doi: 10.1115/1.4037128 History: Received November 10, 2016; Revised June 17, 2017

Recent experiments have shown that the lateral motion of a high pressure injector needle can lead to significant asymmetrical flow in the sac and asymmetric spray pattern in the combustor, which in turn degrades the combustion efficiency and results in spray hole damage. However, the underlying cause of the lateral needle motion is not understood. In this paper, we numerically studied the complex transient flow in a high pressure diesel injector using the detached eddy simulation to understand the cause of the lateral needle motion. The flow field was described by solving the compressible Navier–Stokes equations. The mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of the fuel was modeled using the Zwart–Gerber–Belamri equations. Our study revealed that the vortical flow structures in the sac are responsible for the lateral needle motion and the hole-to-hole flow variation. The transient motion of the vortical structure also affected vapor formation variations in spray holes. Further analysis showed that the rotational speed of the vortical flow structure is proportional to the lateral force magnitude on the lower needle surfaces.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The injector with duel gain orifices and the sac. Left: the injector and the needle and spray nozzles. Right: a close up of the sac with pressure outlets. The lift is defined as the vertical distance of the needle tip between its highest and lowest position during one injection cycle: (a) fuel injector and (b) close-up view of the sac.

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Fig. 2

Locations for the bottom four surfaces of the injector needle

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Fig. 3

Lateral force magnitudes on surface 3 from the temporal sensitivity analysis

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Fig. 4

Lateral force histories on diesel injector needle. Left: force on surface 1; Right: force on the whole needle.

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Fig. 5

Later force histories on surfaces 2 and 3

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Fig. 6

Lateral force histories of surfaces 2 and 3 with a moving average window of 2.5 μs applied to the DDES simulation

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Fig. 7

Time history of the lateral force and derivation of the location of the minimum pressure from the needle tip. Left: DDES; right: RANS.

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Fig. 8

The iso-surface of the Q criterion (>0.01) from DDES simulation at time instances of (a) high lateral force, (b) middle lateral force, and (c) minimum lateral force with the orientations marked for spray holes 1 and 5. The color is based on the vorticity magnitude.

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Fig. 9

Correlation between the lateral forces on surfaces 2 and 3 and the swirling speed inside the sac. Left: surface 2; right: surface 3.

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Fig. 10

Comparison between the vapor volume in a single spray hole between the DDES and RANS simulations

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Fig. 11

Vapor volume within spray holes on opposite sides of the sac over a singular peak

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Fig. 12

Side-by-side plots of the velocity (left) and vapor volume fraction (right) at time instances indicated in Fig. 13

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Fig. 13

Vapor volume and mass flow rate for spray hole 1 in the DDES simulation

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