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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Investigation of Spray and Combustion Performances of a Fuel-Staged Low Emission Combustor: Effects of Main Swirl Angle

[+] Author and Article Information
Cunxi Liu

Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China;
Institute of Qingdao Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Qingdao 266000, China
e-mail: liucunxi@iet.cn

Fuqiang Liu

Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China;
Institute of Qingdao Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Qingdao 266000, China
e-mail: liufuqiang@iet.cn

Jinhu Yang

Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China;
Institute of Qingdao Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Qingdao 266000, China
e-mail: yangjinhu@iet.cn

Yong Mu

Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China;
Institute of Qingdao Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
ingdao 266000, China
e-mail: muyong@iet.cn

Chunyan Hu

Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China;
Institute of Qingdao Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Qingdao 266000, China
e-mail: huchunyan@iet.cn

Gang Xu

Key Laboratory of Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China;
Institute of Qingdao Light-Duty Gas-Turbine,
Qingdao 266000, China
e-mail: xug@iet.cn

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 12, 2016; final manuscript received June 19, 2017; published online August 23, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(12), 121502 (Aug 23, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1329; doi: 10.1115/1.4037451 History: Received July 12, 2016; Revised June 19, 2017

In order to reduce NOx emissions, modern gas turbines are often equipped with lean-burn combustion systems, where the high-velocity fuel-lean conditions that limit NOx formation in combustors also inhibit the ability of ignition, high altitude relight, and lean combustion stability. To face these issues, internally staged scheme of fuel injection is proposed. Primary and main fuel staging enable fuel distribution control, and multi-injections of main fuel lead to a fast and efficient mixing. A fuel-staged low emission combustor in the framework of lean-burn combustion is developed in the present study, i.e., the central pilot stage for low power conditions is swirl-cup prefilming atomization, the main stage is jet-in-crossflow multi-injection, and a combination of primary and main stage injection is provided for higher power output conditions. In lean-burn combustors, the swirling main air naturally tends to entrain the pilot flame and quench it at low power conditions, which is adverse to the operability specifications, such as ignition, lean blow-out (LBO), and high-altitude relight. In order to investigate the effects of the main swirl angle on combustion performances, the ignition and LBO performances were evaluated in a single dome rectangular combustor. Furthermore, the spray patterns and flow field are characterized by kerosene-planar laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV) to provide insight into spray and combustion performances. Flow–flow interactions between pilot and main air streams, spray–flow interactions between pilot spray and main air streams, and flame–flow interactions between pilot flame and main air streams are comprehensively analyzed. The entrainment of recirculating main air streams on pilot air streams enhances with the increase of main swirl angle, because of the upward motion and increasing width of main recirculation zone. A small part of droplets are entrained by the recirculating main air streams at periphery of combustor and a majority of droplets concentrate near the centerline of combustor, making that entrainment of recirculating main air streams on pilot spray and quenching effects of recirculating main air streams on pilot flame are slight, and the extinguishing effects can be ignored. The contributions of main swirl strength to improvement of ignition and LBO performances are due to enhancement of air/fuel mixing by strengthening turbulence level in pilot zone.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of lean-burn fuel injector

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Fig. 2

Right view of details of the main stage swirlers

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Fig. 3

High-pressure gas turbine combustor facility in Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Science

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Fig. 5

The mean velocity field in center plane at isothermal condition (ΔPsw/P3 = 3%, θsw_m = 45 deg)

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Fig. 6

The effect of main swirler angle on the flow field at isothermal condition (time-averaged results, ΔPsw/P3 = 3%)

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Fig. 7

The effect of main swirler angle on droplet spatial distribution at isothermal condition (time-averaged results, time-averaged of 100 raw fuel-PLIF images, ΔPsw/P3 = 3%)

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Fig. 8

The instantaneous image of droplet spatial distribution at isothermal condition (ΔPsw/P3 = 3%, θsw_m = 45 deg)

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Fig. 9

The instantaneous flow field at isothermal condition (ΔPsw/P3 = 3%, θsw_m = 45 deg)

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Fig. 10

The time-averaged result of spray pattern at a higher pressure (P3 = 0.33 MPa, ΔPsw/P3 = 3%, θsw_m = 45 deg, and mf = 2 kg/h)

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Fig. 11

Impact of main swirl angle on the ignition and LBO combustion performances

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Fig. 12

Flame at ignition and near LBO conditions

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Fig. 13

Spray pattern at constant pressure loss (time-averaged results of 100 raw fuel-PLIF images, ΔPsw/P3 = 3%, θsw_m = 45 deg)

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Fig. 14

Turbulence intensity distribution and streamlines in the primary combustion zone at isothermal condition

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Fig. 15

Radial profile of turbulence intensity at different axial positions (θsw_m = 40 deg: , θsw_m = 45 deg: , θsw_m = 50 deg: )

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Fig. 16

Kerosene vapor distribution (relative) in the dome region at reacting condition

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Fig. 17

Comparisons of primary recirculation zone at reacting condition (solid line for θsw_m = 40 deg, dotted line for θsw_m = 45 deg, and dashed line for θsw_m = 50 deg)

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