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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

Correcting Turbocharger Performance Measurements for Heat Transfer and Friction

[+] Author and Article Information
Mario Schinnerl

Continental Automotive GmbH,
Regensburg D-93055, Germany
e-mail: mario.schinnerl@continental-corporation.com

Jan Ehrhard

Continental Automotive GmbH,
Regensburg D-93055, Germany
e-mail: jan.ehrhard@continental-corporation.com

Mathias Bogner

Continental Automotive GmbH,
Regensburg D-93055, Germany
e-mail: mathias.bogner@continental-corporation.com

Joerg Seume

Institute of Turbomachinery and Fluid Dynamics,
Leibniz Universitaet of Hannover,
Hannover D-30511, Germany
e-mail: seume@tfd.uni-hannover.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Vehicular and Small Turbomachines Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 3, 2017; final manuscript received July 5, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 022301 (Oct 03, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1253; doi: 10.1115/1.4037586 History: Received July 03, 2017; Revised July 05, 2017

The measured performance maps of turbochargers (TCs), which are commonly used for the matching process with a combustion engine, are influenced by heat transfer and friction phenomena. Internal heat transfer from the hot turbine side to the colder compressor side leads to an apparently lower compressor efficiency at low to midspeeds and is not comparable to the compressor efficiency measured under adiabatic conditions. The product of the isentropic turbine efficiency and the mechanical efficiency is typically applied to characterize the turbine efficiency and results from the power balance of the turbocharger. This so-called thermomechanical turbine efficiency is strongly correlated with the compressor efficiency obtained from measured data. Based on a previously developed one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer model, nondimensional analysis was carried out and a generally valid heat transfer model for the compressor side of different TCs was developed. From measurements and ramp-up simulations of turbocharger friction power, an analytical friction power model was developed to correct the thermomechanical turbine efficiency from friction impact. The developed heat transfer and friction model demonstrates the capability to properly predict the adiabatic (aerodynamic) compressor and turbine performance from measurement data obtained at a steady-flow hot gas test bench.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Difference between test bench and turbomachinery boundaries

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Fig. 2

Separation of diabatic compression/expansion into adiabatic working process and heat transfer before and after compression/expansion

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Fig. 3

Additional instrumentation on compressor and turbine side for turbocharger A

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Fig. 4

Design of diffuser backplate for turbochargers B and C

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Fig. 5

Difference in compressor efficiency with noninsulated and insulated measurement pipes

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Fig. 6

Remaining difference in compressor efficiency after heat transfer correction

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Fig. 7

Head coefficients of turbocharger A for different coolant temperatures

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Fig. 8

Work coefficients of turbocharger A for different coolant temperatures

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Fig. 9

Work coefficients of turbochargers B and C for a coolant temperature of 90 °C

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Fig. 10

Ramp-up simulations compared to analytical friction power model for an oil temperature of 90 °C or noninsulated turbine housing

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Fig. 11

Work coefficient of turbocharger A corrected for heat transfer impact at different coolant temperatures

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Fig. 12

Compressor efficiency of turbocharger A corrected for heat transfer impact at different coolant temperatures

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Fig. 13

Work coefficient of turbochargers B and C corrected for heat transfer impact for a coolant temperature of 90 °C

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Fig. 14

Compressor efficiency of turbochargers B and C corrected for heat transfer impact at different coolant temperatures

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Fig. 15

Thermomechanical turbine efficiency of turbocharger A corrected for heat transfer and friction impact

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Fig. 16

Isentropic turbine efficiency compared to thermo-mechanical turbine efficiency of turbocharger A

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