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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Molten Particulate Impact on Tailored Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Anindya Ghoshal

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: anindya.ghoshal.civ@mail.mil

Muthuvel Murugan

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Muthuvel.murugan.civ@mail.mil

Michael J. Walock

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Michael.j.walock.civ@mail.mil

Andy Nieto

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Andy.nieto2.ctr@mail.mil

Blake D. Barnett

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Blake.d.barnett.civ@mail.mil

Marc S. Pepi

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Marc.s.pepi.civ@mail.mil

Jeffrey J. Swab

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Jeffrey.j.swab.civ@mail.mil

Dongming Zhu

NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135
e-mail: Dongming.zhu@nasa.gov

Kevin A. Kerner

Aviation Development Directorate,
AMRDEC,
Fort Eustis, VA 23604
e-mail: Kevin.a.kerner.civ@mail.mil

Christopher R. Rowe

Propulsion and Power,
NAVAIR,
Patuxent River, MD 20670
e-mail: Christopher.rowe@navy.mil

Chi-Yu (Michael) Shiao

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: Chi-yu.shiao.civ@mail.mil

David A. Hopkins

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: David.a.hopkins.civ@mail.mil

George A. Gazonas

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005
e-mail: George.a.gazonas.civ@mail.mil

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received October 31, 2016; final manuscript received July 6, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 022601 (Oct 03, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1514; doi: 10.1115/1.4037599 History: Received October 31, 2016; Revised July 06, 2017

Commercial/military fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft engines often have to operate in significantly degraded environments consisting of sand, dust, ash, and other particulates. Marine gas turbine engines are subjected to salt spray, while the coal-burning industrial power generation turbines are subjected to fly ash. The presence of solid particles in the working fluid medium has an adverse effect on the durability of these engines as well as performance. Typical turbine blade damages include blade coating wear, sand glazing, calcia–magnesia–alumina–silicate (CMAS) attack, oxidation, and plugged cooling holes, all of which can cause rapid performance deterioration including loss of aircraft. This research represents the complex thermochemomechanical fluid structure interaction problem of semimolten particulate impingement and infiltration onto ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) into its canonical forms. The objective of this research work is to understand the underpinning interface science of interspersed graded ceramic/metal and ceramic/ceramic composites at the grain structure level for robust coatings and bulk material components for vehicle propulsion systems. This research enhances our understanding of the fundamental relationship between interface properties and the thermomechanical behavior in dissimilar materials for materials by design systems, and creates the ability to develop and fabricate materials with targeted macroscale properties as a function of their interfacial behavior. This project creates a framework to enable the engineered design of solid–solid and liquid–solid interfaces in dissimilar functionalized materials to establish a paradigm shift toward science from the traditional empiricism in engineering TBCs and high temperature highly loaded bulk materials. An integrated approach of modeling and simulation, characterization, fabrication, and validation to solve the fundamental questions of interface mechanisms which affect the properties of novel materials will be validated to guide component material solutions to visionary 2040+ military vehicle propulsion systems.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical GTB with a top-coat and a bond coat with thermally grown Al-oxide layer. (Reprinted with permission from Padture et al. [2]. Copyright 2002 by AAAS.)

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Fig. 2

Engine turbine nozzle and rotor blades with typical sand-induced damage

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Fig. 3

(a) Field-returned and engine test hardware (GTE shroud) showing CMAS formation and (b) detailed microscopic image and elemental analysis of CMAS formed on the engine test shroud

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Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of natural sand, AFRL 02 and AFRL 03 sands

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Fig. 5

Proposed sandphobic TBC system—Ni-superalloy turbine blade from hybrid approach (layered and graded) to functionally graded system

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Fig. 6

(a) Typical failure modes in the TBC layer [5] and (b) SEM image of the GTB showing the columnar structure of the 7YSZ

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Fig. 7

Mesoscale blade surface—particle dynamic impact model

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Fig. 10

Particle velocity change during surface interactions (from multiple particle impact simulation)

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Fig. 8

TBC surface—multiple particle (irregular—sharp-edged) impact model

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Fig. 9

Plastic strain on TBC during impact from (a) the first particle and (b) subsequent particles. Each particle is 50 μm in diameter, with an irregular shape and sharp edges.

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Fig. 11

(a) A typical spherical sand particulate, (b) temporal requirement for melting of sand particulate of different diameters exposed to combustor temperature, and (c) test sand properties used for the thermal calculation

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Fig. 12

(a) Button-cell flame testing rig and (b) hot particulate ingestion jet burner rig

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Fig. 13

Results of CMAS exposure on Gd2O3 + 7YSZ-coated superalloy button cell specimen: (a) cross-sectional optical micrograph and (b) Energy dispersive spectra of CMAS

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Fig. 14

AFRL 02 sand used in HPIR experiments: (a) SEM and (b) BET particle distribution

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Fig. 15

High-speed images (using a Photron FASTCAM SA5 at 140 kfps) of a molten sand particle's impact on the surface of a TBC. Note the presence of a material plume, from the impact, in the last two frames (e and f).

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