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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

CO and H2O Time-Histories in Shock-Heated Blends of Methane and Ethane for Assessment of a Chemical Kinetics Model

[+] Author and Article Information
O. Mathieu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: olivier.mathieu@tamu.edu

C. R. Mulvihill

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: cmulvihill@tamu.edu

E. L. Petersen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: epetersen@tamu.edu

Y. Zhang

Combustion Chemistry Centre,
School of Chemistry,
Ryan Institute,
National University of Ireland,
Galway, Ireland
e-mail: yjzhang_xjtu@xjtu.edu.cn

H. J. Curran

Combustion Chemistry Centre,
School of Chemistry,
Ryan Institute,
National University of Ireland,
Galway, Ireland
e-mail: henry.curran@nuigalway.ie

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 30, 2017; final manuscript received July 6, 2017; published online September 13, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(12), 121507 (Sep 13, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1241; doi: 10.1115/1.4037602 History: Received June 30, 2017; Revised July 06, 2017

Methane and ethane are the two main components of natural gas and typically constitute more than 95% of it. In this study, a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6 diluted in 99% Ar was studied at fuel lean (equiv. ratio = 0.5) conditions, for pressures around 1, 4, and 10 atm. Using laser absorption diagnostics, the time histories of CO and H2O were recorded between 1400 and 1800 K. Water is a final product from combustion, and its formation is a good marker of the completion of the combustion process. Carbon monoxide is an intermediate combustion species, a good marker of incomplete/inefficient combustion, as well as a regulated pollutant for the gas turbine industry. Measurements such as these species time histories are important for validating and assessing chemical kinetics models beyond just ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds. Time-history profiles for these two molecules were compared to a state-of-the-art detailed kinetics mechanism as well as to the well-established GRI 3.0 mechanism. Results show that the H2O profile is accurately reproduced by both models. However, discrepancies are observed for the CO profiles. Under the conditions of this study, the CO profiles typically increase rapidly after an induction time, reach a maximum, and then decrease. This maximum CO mole fraction is often largely over-predicted by the models, whereas the depletion rate of CO past this peak is often over-estimated for pressures above 1 atm.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Uncorrected and corrected CO profiles for a shock at 1737 K and 10.85 atm. To produce the corrected profile, the measured emission from an emission test at 1728 K and 10.73 atm was subtracted from the raw voltage signal of the uncorrected profile.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Evolution for various temperatures of the experimental CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 1 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison between models and experiment of the evolution of the CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at 1523 K and 1.21 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Evolution for various temperatures of the experimental CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 4 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between models and experiment of the evolution of the CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at 1542 K and 4.55 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Evolution for various temperatures of the experimental CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 10 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between models and experiment of the evolution of the CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at 1542 K and 10.8 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Definition of the characteristic time measurements extracted from the CO mole fraction profiles obtained during this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evolution of the induction delay time with the inverse of the temperature for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 1, 4, and 10 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Evolution with the inverse of the temperature of the time at which the CO mole fraction reaches a maximum for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 1, 4, and 10 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Evolution of the CO mole fraction at the peak with the temperature for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 1, 4, and 10 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Evolution with the temperature of the CO mole fraction 0.5 ms after the peak for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 1, 4, and 10 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison between models and experiments of the evolution of the H2O mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at around 1 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Induction delay for the water production from a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6 diluted in 99% Ar at ϕ = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Evolution of the CO mole fraction as a function of time for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6, ϕ = 0.5, diluted in 99% Ar at 1683 K and 4.76 atm and evolution of the CO and CO2 rate of production at these conditions using the NUIG model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Evolution of the CO mole fraction at 1542 K and 10.8 atm for a mixture of 90% CH4/10% C2H6 diluted in 99% Ar at ϕ = 0.5. Predictions from the NUIG model are included for a variation of the reaction R36 (CO + OH ⇆ CO2 + H) by a factor of 3.

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