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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Design of Directional Probes for High-Frequency Turbine Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Liu

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: liu1752@purdue.edu

G. Paniagua

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: gpaniagua@me.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Controls, Diagnostics and Instrumentation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 5, 2017; final manuscript received July 6, 2017; published online September 19, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(1), 011601 (Sep 19, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1299; doi: 10.1115/1.4037640 History: Received July 05, 2017; Revised July 06, 2017

Aerodynamic probes are prevalent in turbomachinery research and gas turbine monitoring. Regrettably, this measurement technique experiences limitations not only in the transonic range but also in the high frequency range. Calibrated numerical tools offer an alternative procedure in the design of suitable instrumentation for turbine applications. First, two different probe geometries, oval and trapezoidal shapes, were characterized at different incidence angles. In particular, the pressure recovery, angle sensitivity, and induced vortex shedding unsteadiness at several yaw angles were evaluated. The studies were performed over a wide range of Mach numbers from subsonic to the transonic regime. The vortex shedding of the probe was also carefully analyzed. In a second evaluation, we selected the oval probe geometry including the line-cavity effects into the pressure tappings. The resonance frequency of line-cavity system was evaluated and compared with analytical calculations, as well as with the detailed analysis of Bergh and Tijdeman. The comparison of the pressure tapping readings with the actual input signal allowed the identification of the transfer functions, as well as the physical mechanisms that should be corrected during the measurements. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) unsteady evaluations were implemented to compute the blockage effects, as well as the final frequency attenuation experienced by the piezo-resistive sensors. All numerical analyses were performed using unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) models.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Trapezoidal probe and (b) the computational domain of the trapezoidal probe. (c) Oval probe and (d) the computational domain of the oval probe.

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Fig. 2

Nondimensional pressure evaluated at point “c” on the oval probe as a function of grid cell amount

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Fig. 3

Nondimensional pressure evaluated by point “c” on the oval probe in function of turbulence model

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Fig. 4

(a) Reduced shock tube model with boundary condition, (b) the attached line-cavity system, (c) normalized pressure retrieved by the reference and recessed sensor, and (d) the identified resonance frequency of the line-cavity system

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Fig. 5

(a) Nondimensional pressure retrieved by point “a” on the probe as a function of periodic cycles, (b) zoomed portion of the last seven periodic cycles, and (c) overlap of the last three cycles

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Fig. 6

Steady Mach contours as a function of yaw angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval

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Fig. 7

Nondimensional pressure as functions of the probe curvilinear coordinate and yaw angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval

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Fig. 8

Iso-contours of CPi in functions of yaw angles and probe coordinate for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval. Angle sensitivity as a function of yaw angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and two characterized probe shapes evaluated at (c) point “a” and (d) point “c.”

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Fig. 9

Steady Mach contours as a function of yaw angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval

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Fig. 10

Nondimensional pressure as functions of the probe curvilinear coordinate and yaw angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval

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Fig. 11

Iso-contours of CPi in functions of yaw angles and probe coordinate for an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval. Angle sensitivity as a function of yaw angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and two characterized probe shapes evaluated at (c) point “a” and (d) point “c.”

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous vortex shedding at two time frames for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and 0 yaw angle downstream of the two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval

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Fig. 13

Instantaneous vortex shedding at two time frames for an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and 0 yaw angle downstream of the two characterized probe shapes: (a) trapezoidal and (b) oval

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Fig. 14

Definition of MinMax

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Fig. 15

MinMax as a function of probe coordinate for (a) an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and 0 yaw angle, (b) an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and −12 deg yaw angle, (c) an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and 0 yaw angle, and (d) an inlet Mach number of 0.75 and −12 deg yaw angle

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Fig. 16

(a) Computation domain of the selected oval probe and (b) selected oval probe with line-cavity systems introduced

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Fig. 17

Frequency spectrum for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 retrieved by (a) downstream velocity sensor, (b) probe sensor 1, and (c) probe sensor 2. Frequency spectrum for an inlet Mach number of 0.6 retrieved by (d) downstream velocity sensor, (e) probe sensor 1, and (f) probe sensor 2.

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Fig. 18

(a) Nondimensional pressure retrieved by reference sensor and probe sensor 2 for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and (b) transfer function identification for an inlet Mach number of 0.3

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Fig. 19

(a) Nondimensional pressure retrieved by reference sensor and probe sensor 2 for an inlet Mach number of 0.6 and (b) transfer function identification for an inlet Mach number of 0.6

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Fig. 20

(a) Three-dimensional design of the directional probe and (b) internal structures of the line-cavity systems

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Fig. 21

(a) Three-dimensional computational domain, (b) top view, and (c) front view of the computational domain. (d) 3D computational grid. (e) 2D midcut of the computational grid.

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Fig. 22

(a) Convention of yaw and pitch angle and (b) Steady Mach contours as a function of yaw angle for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 and 0 pitch angle

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Fig. 23

CPj as functions of yaw and pitch angles for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 evaluated at the location of (a) tube ①, (b) tube ②, (c) tube ③, (d) tube ④, and (e) tube ⑤

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Fig. 24

Instantaneous vortex shedding downstream of the directional probe at two time frames for an inlet Mach number of 0.3

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Fig. 25

Frequency spectrum for an inlet Mach number of 0.3 retrieved by (a) Kulite ①, (b) Kulite ②, (c) Kulite ③, (d) Kulite ④, and (e) Kulite ⑤

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Fig. 26

(a) Schematic sketch of the line-cavity system and (b) resonance frequency of all tube-cavity systems inside of the directional probe

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