Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

High-Speed Shadowgraphy Measurements of an Erosive Particle-Laden Jet Under High-Pressure Compressor Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Max Hufnagel

Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: max.hufnagel@ila.uni-stuttgart.de

Christian Werner-Spatz

Innovation Management and Development,
Lufthansa Technik AG,
Hamburg 22335, Germany
e-mail: christian.werner-spatz@lht.dlh.de

Christian Koch

Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: christian.koch@ila.uni-stuttgart.de

Stephan Staudacher

Institute of Aircraft Propulsion Systems,
University of Stuttgart,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany
e-mail: staudacher@ila.uni-stuttgart.de

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 5, 2017; final manuscript received July 13, 2017; published online September 19, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(1), 012604 (Sep 19, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4037689 History: Received July 05, 2017; Revised July 13, 2017

Erosive damage done to jet engine compressor blading by solid particles has a negative influence on the compressor aerodynamic properties and hence decreases performance. The erosive change of shape has been investigated in a multitude of experiments ranging from eroding flat plates to eroding full engines. The basic challenge to transfer the results from very simple tests to real life erosion remains. Up to date measurement techniques today allow closing this gap. The necessary experimental and analytical steps are shown. The erosion resistance of Ti–6Al–4V at realistic flow conditions with fluid velocities ranging from 200 to 400 m/s is used. The erodent used was quartz sand with a size distribution corresponding to standardized Arizona Test Dust A3 (1–120 μm). Flat plates out of Ti–6Al–4V were eroded at different impingement angles. The particle velocities and sizes were investigated using a high-speed laser shadowgraphy technique. A dimensional analysis was carried out to obtain nondimensional parameters suitable for describing erosion. Different averaging methods of the particle velocity were examined in order to identify a representative particle velocity. Compared to the fluid velocity and the mean particle velocity, the energy averaged particle velocity is found to be the best representation of the erosiveness of a particle stream. The correlations derived from the dimensional analysis are capable of precisely predicting erosion rates for different rig operating points (OPs). The results can be applied to the methodology published by Schrade et al. (2015, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Erosive Change of Shape for High-Pressure Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42061).

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Predicted erosion for 2024 aluminum at different velocities measured by Grant and Tabakoff [2]

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Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of a particle jet impinging a surface

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Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of the experimental arrangement. All dimensions are in mm. The center of the coordinate system coincides with the center of the flat plate specimen.

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Fig. 4

Comparison of laser diffraction and shadowgraphy measurements of the cumulative volume distribution Q3 for particle sizes above 10 μm

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Fig. 5

Cumulative spacial mass distribution Ψ and spacial mass distribution density ψ of the particles along the z-axis. Spacial mass distribution density is described by a Gaussian function. The particle mass is symmetrically distributed along the z-axis.

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Fig. 6

Particle velocity vp as a function of the measured particle diameter dpA and the rig OP. The data are acquired from the z-section between −0.25 mm < z < 0.25 mm of the shadowgraphy measuring zone.

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Fig. 7

Experimental erosion rates ε for Ti–6Al–4V from flat plate experiments in mg g−1. ε(α) is modeled with (a) Eq. (22) and fluid vel. vair, (b) Eq. (8) and mean particle vel. vp¯, and (c) Eq. (8) and energy averaged particle vel. vp̃.

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Fig. 8

Schematic drawing of a numerical approach to predict the change of shape of an eroded surface




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