Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Study of Aeronautical Ignition in a Swirled Confined Jet-Spray Burner

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Marrero-Santiago

Normandie Université,
INSA et Université de Rouen,
Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76800, France
e-mail: marreroj@coria.fr

A. Verdier, C. Brunet, A. Vandel, G. Godard, G. Cabot, M. Boukhalfa, B. Renou

Normandie Université,
INSA et Université de Rouen,
Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76800, France

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 7, 2017; final manuscript received July 12, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 021502 (Oct 03, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1316; doi: 10.1115/1.4037752 History: Received July 07, 2017; Revised July 12, 2017

Aeronautical gas turbine ignition is still not well understood and its management and control are mandatory for new lean-burner designs. The fundamental aspects of swirled confined two-phase flow ignition are addressed in the present work. Two facilities enable the analysis of two characteristic phases of the process. The knowledge for ignition, acoustics and instabilities (KIAI)-Spray single-injector burner was investigated in terms of local flow properties, including the air velocity and droplet fuel (n-heptane) size-velocity characterization by phase Doppler anemometry (PDA), and the study of local equivalence ratio by means of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) on a tracer (toluene). The initial spark location inside the chamber is vital to ensure successful ignition. An ignition probability map was elaborated varying the location of a 532 nm laser-induced spark in the chamber under ultralean nominal conditions (ϕ = 0.61). The outer recirculation zone (ORZ) was found to be the best region for placing a spark and successfully igniting the mixture. A strong correlation was found between the ignition probability field and the airflow turbulent kinetic energy and velocity fields. Local equivalence ratio enhances the importance of the ORZ. Once a successful ignition is accomplished on one injector, the injector-to-injector flame propagation must be examined. High-speed visualization through two synchronized perpendicular cameras was applied on the KIAI-Spray linear multi-injector burner. Four different injector-to-injector distances and four fuels of different volatilities (n-heptane, n-decane, n-dodecane, and jet-A1 kerosene) were evaluated. Spray branches and interinjector regions changed with the interinjector distance. Two different flame propagation mechanisms were identified: the direct radial propagation and the arc propagation mode. Ignition delay times were modified with the injector-to-injector distance and with the different fuels.

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Fig. 1

(a) Single-injector facility and (b) multi-injector facility

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Fig. 2

PDA mesh (dots) and ignition probability mesh (pluses)

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Fig. 3

PLIF-toluene experimental setup

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Fig. 4

Mean components of air velocity flow for nonreactive conditions. U1—axial, U2—radial, and U3—azimuthal.

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Fig. 5

Turbulent kinetic energy of the air in nonreactive conditions

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Fig. 6

Left: fuel droplet diameter histograms for two points. Middle: droplet detection for the fuel droplets divided by size-classes. Right: fuel droplet mean diameter (D10). Nonreactive conditions.

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Fig. 7

Mean components of fuel droplet velocity separated in three size-classes. Nonreactive conditions. Triangles represent the [0–10] μm group, squares the [20–30] μm group, and circles the [40–50] μm group. U1—axial, U2—radial, U2—azimuthal.

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Fig. 8

Instantaneous corrected filtered PLIF-toluene image. Equivalence ratio map.

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Fig. 9

Mean image from instantaneous corrected filtered PLIF-toluene images. Equivalence ratio map. Horizontal and vertical lines are the extracted profiles for Fig. 10.

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Fig. 10

Horizontal and vertical equivalence ratio profiles extracted from the mean image of equivalence ratio

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Fig. 11 Left

airflow turbulent kinetic energy (m2 s−2). Right: ignition probability map (lines) overlapped to the air mean velocity magnitude (ms−1).

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Fig. 12

Ignition sequence for d = 9 cm for n-decane. Direct radial propagation mechanism.

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Fig. 13

Ignition sequence for d = 18 cm for n-decane. Arc propagation mechanism.

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Fig. 14

Spray branches forming droplet bridges. Droplet imaging in the interinjector region in nonreacting conditions.

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Fig. 15

Ignition delay time per unit of distance for four different fuels and different injector-to-injector distances. Calculated dividing the total ignition delay time by the straight distance from the spark plug to the last ignited injector.




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