0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

The Effect of Fuel Staging on the Structure and Instability Characteristics of Swirl-Stabilized Flames in a Lean Premixed Multinozzle Can Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Janith Samarasinghe

Center for Combustion, Power and Propulsion,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: janith.samarasinghe@ge.com

Wyatt Culler

Center for Combustion, Power and Propulsion,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: wrc5047@psu.edu

Bryan D. Quay

Center for Combustion, Power and Propulsion,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: bdq100@psu.edu

Domenic A. Santavicca

Center for Combustion, Power and Propulsion,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: das8@psu.edu

Jacqueline O'Connor

Center for Combustion, Power and Propulsion,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jxo22@engr.psu.edu

1Present address: GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309.

Manuscript received July 1, 2017; final manuscript received July 3, 2017; published online August 29, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 139(12), 121504 (Aug 29, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1247; doi: 10.1115/1.4037461 History: Received July 01, 2017; Revised July 03, 2017

Fuel staging is a commonly used strategy in the operation of gas turbine engines. In multinozzle combustor configurations, this is achieved by varying fuel flow rate to different nozzles. The effect of fuel staging on flame structure and self-excited instabilities is investigated in a research can combustor employing five swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed nozzles. At an operating condition where all nozzles are fueled equally and the combustor undergoes a self-excited instability, fuel staging successfully suppresses the instability: both when overall equivalence ratio is increased by staging as well as when overall equivalence ratio is kept constant while staging. Increased fuel staging changes the distribution of time-averaged heat release rate in the regions where adjacent flames interact and reduces the amplitudes of heat release rate fluctuations in those regions. Increased fuel staging also causes a breakup in the monotonic phase behavior that is characteristic of convective disturbances that travel along a flame. In particular, heat release rate fluctuations in the middle flame and flame–flame interaction region are out-of-phase with those in the outer flames, resulting in a cancelation of the global heat release rate oscillations. The Rayleigh integral distribution within the combustor shows that during a self-excited instability, the regions of highest heat release rate fluctuation are in phase-with the combustor pressure fluctuation. When staging fuel is introduced, these regions fluctuate out-of-phase with the pressure fluctuation, further illustrating that fuel staging suppresses instabilities through a phase cancelation mechanism.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Rayleigh, J. W. S. , 1878, “ The Explanation of Certain Acoustical Phenomena,” Nature, 18(455), pp. 319–321. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y. , and Yang, V. , 2009, “ Dynamics and Stability of Lean-Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 35(4), pp. 293–364. [CrossRef]
Ducruix, S. , Schuller, T. , Durox, D. , and Candel, S. , 2003, “ Combustion Dynamics and Instabilities: Elementary Coupling and Driving Mechanisms,” J. Propul. Power, 19(5), pp. 722–734. [CrossRef]
Candel, S. , Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , Bourgouin, J.-F. , and Moeck, J. P. , 2014, “ Dynamics of Swirling Flames,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 46(1), pp. 147–173. [CrossRef]
Külsheimer, C. , and Büchner, H. , 2002, “ Combustion Dynamics of Turbulent Swirling Flames,” Combust. Flame, 131(1), pp. 70–84. [CrossRef]
Balachandran, R. , Ayoola, B. , Kaminski, C. , Dowling, A. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2005, “ Experimental Investigation of the Nonlinear Response of Turbulent Premixed Flames to Imposed Inlet Velocity Oscillations,” Combust. Flame, 143(1), pp. 37–55. [CrossRef]
Palies, P. , Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , and Candel, S. , 2010, “ The Combined Dynamics of Swirler and Turbulent Premixed Swirling Flames,” Combust. Flame, 157(9), pp. 1698–1717. [CrossRef]
Bunce, N. A. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2014, “ Interaction Between Swirl Number Fluctuations and Vortex Hedding in a Single-Nozzle Turbulent Swirling Fully-Premixed Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(2), p. 021503. [CrossRef]
Steinberg, A. M. , Arndt, C. M. , and Meier, W. , 2013, “ Parametric Study of Vortex Structures and Their Dynamics in Swirl-Stabilized Combustion,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(2), pp. 3117–3125. [CrossRef]
Acharya, V . S. , Shin, D.-H. , and Lieuwen, T. , 2013, “ Premixed Flames Excited by Helical Disturbances: Flame Wrinkling and Heat Release Oscillations,” J. Propul. Power, 29(6), pp. 1282–1291. [CrossRef]
Szedlmayer, M. T. , 2013, “ An Experimental Study of the Velocity-Forced Flame Response of Lean-Premixed Multi-Nozzle Can Combustor for Gas Turbines,” Ph.D. thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. https://etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/18835
Fanaca, D. , Alemela, P. , Hirsch, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2010, “ Comparison of the Flow Field of a Swirl Stabilized Premixed Burner in an Annular and a Single Burner Combustion Chamber,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(7), p. 071502. [CrossRef]
Samarasinghe, J. , Peluso, S. J. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2016, “ The Three-Dimensional Structure of Swirl-Stabilized Flames in a Lean Premixed Multinozzle Can Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(3), p. 031502. [CrossRef]
McManus, K. , Poinsot, T. , and Candel, S. , 1993, “ A Review of Active Control of Combustion Instabilities,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 19(1), pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Bulat, G. , Skipper, D. , McMillan, R. , and Syed, K. , 2007, “ Active Control of Fuel Splits in Gas Turbine DLE Combustion Systems,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27266.
Lefebvre, A. H. , and Ballal, D. R. , 2010, Gas Turbine Combustion, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [PubMed]
Davis, L. B. , and Black, S. H. , 1995, “ Dry Low NOx Combustion Systems for GE Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines,” GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY.
Szedlmayer, M. T. , Quay, B. D. , Samarasinghe, J. , De Rosa, A. , Lee, J. G. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2011, “ Forced Flame Response of a Lean Premixed Multi-Nozzle Can Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46080.
Lee, J. G. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2003, “ Experimental Diagnostics for the Study of Combustion Instabilities in Lean Premixed Combustors,” J. Propul. Power, 19(5), pp. 735–750. [CrossRef]
Nori, V. , and Seitzman, J. , 2008, “ Evaluation of Chemiluminescence as a Combustion Diagnostic Under Varying Operating Conditions,” AIAA Paper No. 2008-953.
Oppenheim, A. V. , and Schafer, R. W. , 2010, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Pearson Higher Education, London. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Foley, C. , 2015, “ Attachment Point Characteristics and Modeling of Shear Layer Stabilized Flames in an Annular, Swirling Flowfield,” Ph.D. thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. https://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/54357
Kim, K. T. , Lee, J. G. , Lee, H. J. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2010, “ Characterization of Forced Flame Response of Swirl-Stabilized Turbulent Lean-Premixed Flames in a Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(4), p. 041502. [CrossRef]
Kim, D. , Lee, J. G. , Quay, B. D. , Santavicca, D. A. , Kim, K. , and Srinivasan, S. , 2010, “ Effect of Flame Structure on the Flame Transfer Function in a Premixed Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(2), p. 021502. [CrossRef]
Taamallah, S. , LaBry, Z. A. , Shanbhogue, S. J. , and Ghoniem, A. F. , 2015, “ Thermo-Acoustic Instabilities in Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustion and Their Link to Acoustically Coupled and Decoupled Flame Macrostructures,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 35(3), pp. 3273–3282. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of multinozzle can combustor [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Line-of-sight: (a) digital photograph and (b) time-averaged chemiluminescence image of a stable multinozzle flame

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) OH-PLIF setup and (b) line-of-sight photograph of the multinozzle flame with laser sheets highlighted

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Pressure fluctuation amplitude as a function of centerbody and dump plate temperatures (1 psi = 6894.76 Pa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Amplitude spectra of combustor pressure fluctuation (1 psi = 6894.76 Pa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Combustor pressure fluctuation as a function of equivalence ratio at different fuel staging percentages (1 psi = 6894.76 Pa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Reduction of combustor pressure fluctuation amplitude with increased fuel staging (1 psi = 6894.76 Pa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Time-averaged CH* chemiluminescence images of the multinozzle flame at test cases: (a) 1, (b) 2, (c) 3, and (d) 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Time-averaged FSD images of the multinozzle flame at test cases: (a) 1, (b) 2, and (c) 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Normalized RMS images of the multinozzle flame at test cases: (a) 1, (b) 2, (c) 3, and (d) 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Phase images of the multinozzle flame at test cases: (a) 1, (b) 2, (c) 3, and (d) 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Rayleigh integral distribution images of the multinozzle flame at test cases: (a) 1, (b) 2, and (c) 4

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In