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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Strong Azimuthal Combustion Instabilities in a Spray Annular Chamber With Intermittent Partial Blow-Off

[+] Author and Article Information
Kevin Prieur

Laboratoire EM2C,
CNRS, CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Châtenay-Malabry cedex 92295, France;
Safran Tech,
E&P, Châteaufort, CS 80112,
Magny-Les-Hameaux 78772, France

Daniel Durox, Thierry Schuller

Laboratoire EM2C,
CNRS, CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Châtenay-Malabry cedex 92295, France

Sébastien Candel

Laboratoire EM2C,
CNRS, CentraleSupélec,
Université Paris-Saclay,
Châtenay-Malabry cedex 92295, France
e-mail: kevin.prieur@centralesupelec.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 4, 2017; final manuscript received July 18, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(3), 031503 (Oct 17, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1276; doi: 10.1115/1.4037824 History: Received July 04, 2017; Revised July 18, 2017

This article reports experiments carried out in the MICCA-spray combustor developed at EM2C laboratory. This system comprises 16 swirl spray injectors. Liquid n-heptane is injected by simplex atomizers. The combustion chamber is formed by two cylindrical quartz tubes allowing full optical access to the flame region and it is equipped with 12 pressure sensors recording signals in the plenum and chamber. A high-speed camera provides images of the flames and photomultipliers record the light intensity from different flames. For certain operating conditions, the system exhibits well defined instabilities coupled by the first azimuthal mode of the chamber at a frequency of 750 Hz. These instabilities occur in the form of bursts. Examination of the pressure and the light intensity signals gives access to the acoustic energy source term. Analysis of the phase fluctuations between the two signals is carried out using cross-spectral analysis. At limit cycle, large pressure fluctuations of 5000 Pa are reached, and these levels persist over a finite period of time. Analysis of the signals using the spin ratio indicates that the standing mode is predominant. Flame dynamics at the pressure antinodal line reveals a strong longitudinal pulsation with heat release rate oscillations in phase and increasing linearly with the acoustic pressure for every oscillation levels. At the pressure nodal line, the flames are subjected to large transverse velocity fluctuations leading to a transverse motion of the flames and partial blow-off. Scenarios and modeling elements are developed to interpret these features.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Left: photograph of the MICCA-Spray annular combustor with 16 liquid spray injectors. The chamber comprises 200 mm quartz tubes and a 400 mm metal cylindrical tube on the outer part of the annulus. The quartz tubes allow full visualization of the flames in the annulus. Middle: Schematic view of the chamber backplane showing the locations of the photomultiplier (PM) and of the different microphones “MCx” in the chamber and “MPx” in the plenum. Flames are numbered from flame 1 in the clockwise direction. The fixed nodal line position is indicated with the solid red line. Right: Direct true-color photograph of the annular chamber showing the influence of the wall temperature. The chamber is under steady operation at a bulk velocity Ub = 46 m s−1, a global equivalence ratio ϕ = 0.86, and a total power of P = 113 kW. Top: flame configuration after a few seconds of operation. Bottom: flame configuration after 10 min of operation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Vertical tomography of the n-heptane droplet spray with flame for ϕ = 0.86, Ub = 46 m s−1, and P = 7.1 kW in the single burner setup. The locations of the spray cone and the flame are indicated in the figure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Mean air velocity profiles Ur, Uθ and Uz measured at z = 2.5 mm for a nominal air flow rate m˙air = 2.79 g s−1 (corresponding to Ub= 46 m s−1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

n-Heptane droplet diameter profiles d10 and d32 in coldflow conditions without confinement, 2.5 mm above the injector outlet for nominal flow rates m˙fuel = 0.16 g s−1 and m˙air = 2.79 g s−1 (corresponding to Ub= 46 m s−1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Estimated vaporization times τv and vaporization distances lv for different gas temperatures Tg and for three droplets diameters d. The black dotted line in the top plot corresponds to the distance from the injection point to the quartz wall where n-heptane droplets impact the confinement (approximately 40 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Influence of the wall temperature on the acoustic pressure in the chamber (only microphone “MC7” is plotted). The temperature of the wall is indicated on the top left of each plot. The operation conditions have been kept constant at ϕ= 0.85 and P= 110 kW.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Analysis of a sequence with different instability modes in the MICCA-spray combustor for ϕ=0.86,P=113  kW. Left: From top to bottom, acoustic pressure in the chamber and in the plenum (locations of the microphones “MPx” and “MCx” are indicated in Fig. 1, middle), associated spin ratio s and orientation θ of the nodal line. Right: zoom of the acoustic pressure in the chamber for two types of modes, standing (top) and spinning (bottom).

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Fig. 8

Spin ratio distribution calculated over 121 bursts

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Fig. 9

Top: acoustic pressure in the chamber over two different bursts recorded by MC1 (blue) and MC7 (red). Bottom: evolution of the instability frequency during the burst. Calculations are made for sections of 27 ms of oscillations corresponding to approximately 20 periods with a spectral resolution Δf= 1 Hz.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Light emission of two flames for ϕ=0.84,P=112  kW around the antinodal line during a full cycle of oscillation. Images are averaged over four cycles. Yellow and dark red, respectively, correspond to high and low light emission levels.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Acoustic pressure p and heat release rate Q˙ (light intensity) fluctuations for a flame at the antinodal position for ϕ=0.85,P=109   kW. The evolution of the phase between p and Q˙ is plotted in the last graph.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Relationship between p′ and Q˙′/Q˙¯ computed for the different bursts in the sequence. Q˙′/Q˙¯ is the relative amplitude of the RMS heat release rate fluctuation and p′ is the RMS value of the pressure fluctuation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Light emission of three flames for ϕ=0.85,P=113  kW around the nodal line during a full cycle of oscillation. Images are averaged over four cycles. Yellow corresponds to high light intensity while dark red represents low light emission. The center of the flame is indicated by a white dashed line.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Lateral and axial flame oscillations enhanced using dynamic mode decomposition (false colors) at the frequency of the instability f= 732 Hz for one cycle. The camera is aligned on flame 14 close to the nodal line (see Fig. 1) and records the flame luminosity of half of the annulus during several periods of oscillation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Relative light intensity fluctuations of half flames when the acoustic pressure increases during several instability bursts for ϕ=0.86,P=113  kW. Q˙h′/Qh˙¯ is the relative amplitude of the RMS heat release rate fluctuation and p′ is the RMS value of the pressure fluctuation.

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Fig. 16

True-color photographs of the annular chamber when six flames are blown off for ϕ=0.85,  P=111  kW

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Fig. 17

Acoustic pressure in the chamber (top), in the plenum (middle) and the light intensity signal from two flames around the nodal line (bottom) for ϕ=0.81,P=111  kW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Pressure in the chamber when the blow-off appears for eight different experiments. The mean acoustic pressure is indicated with the black line.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Blow-off limits calculated by assuming that b*=1, ψ3(S)=0.19. The square symbol corresponds to an operating condition leading to blow-off (a peak value of the pressure equal to 3000 Pa).

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