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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

New Methodology for the Identification of the Leakage Paths and Guidelines for the Design of Common Rail Injectors With Reduced Leakage

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Ferrari

Energy Department,
Politecnico di Torino,
Torino 10129, Italy
e-mail: alessandro.ferrari@polito.it

A. Mittica, P. Pizzo

Energy Department,
Politecnico di Torino,
Torino 10129, Italy

X. Wu, H. Zhou

Nanyue Fuel Injection Systems Co., Ltd.,
Hengyang 421007, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received August 24, 2016; final manuscript received July 17, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Stani Bohac.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 022801 (Oct 03, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-16-1421; doi: 10.1115/1.4037862 History: Received August 24, 2016; Revised July 17, 2017

The static leakage of a common rail (CR) injector is the flow-rate that is recirculated from the injector when the pilot-stage is not actuated. It is a critical issue in the development of modern CR injectors, because it can limit the maximum rail pressure level. An experimental methodology for splitting the static leakage between the contributions that pertain to the different leakage paths has been developed and applied to an innovative solenoid injector for the Brazilian, Russian, Indian, and Chinese (BRIC) market. The weak point of this injector was the excessively high static leakage compared to solenoid injectors for the European and U.S. markets. The static leakage splitting procedure allowed the sources of this leakage to be determined and a newly designed prototype was manufactured on the basis of the outcomes of this analysis. The new prototype featured a significant reduction (up to 54%) in the static leakage, compared to the original injector, and its leakage performance was almost the same as the typical one of Euro 5 solenoid injectors. Finally, a finite element method (FEM) analysis has been carried out on the improved BRIC injector. Guidelines are provided for a more refined design of some critical pieces of the component internal layout in order to further reduce its static leakage.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup and KMM continuous flowmeter layout

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Fig. 2

Static leakage as a function of pnom

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Fig. 3

Setup of the innovative injector for the BRIC market (circle symbol) and comparison with the ranges for typical Euro designs (dark zones). Rhomboid symbol refers to a Euro injector equipped with a pressure-balanced pilot valve.

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Fig. 4

Internal layout of the innovative injector for the BRIC market

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Fig. 5

Static leakage splitting procedure: (a) prototype P1 for evaluation of Q7, (b) prototype P2 for evaluation of (Q6 + Q8), (c) prototype P3 for evaluation of Q5, (d) prototype P4 for evaluation of Q4, (e) prototype P5 for evaluation of Q3, and (f) prototype P6 for evaluation of Q2

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Fig. 6

Protrusion of the injector pilot-stage feeding pipe

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Fig. 7

Torques acting on component B

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Fig. 8

Determination of the axial force due to the tightening torque

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Fig. 9

Tightening and pressure forces acting on components A and B

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Fig. 10

Analysis of design D1: (a) investigated layout (lower surfaces of A and B), (b) elastic displacements induced by Fax, and (c) elastic displacements induced by the fuel pressure

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Fig. 11

Analysis of design D2: (a) investigated layout (lower surfaces of A and B), (b) elastic displacements induced by Fax, and (c) elastic displacements induced by the fuel pressure

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Fig. 12

Analysis of design D3: (a) investigated layout (lower and upper surface of A, lower surface of B), (b) elastic displacements induced by Fax, and (c) elastic displacements induced by the fuel pressure

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Fig. 13

Strained configurations due to Fax: (a) D1, (b) D2, and (c) D3

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