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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Identifying Opportunities for Reducing Nacelle Drag

[+] Author and Article Information
M. S. Zawislak

Department of Mechanical and Materials
Engineering,
Queen's University,
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: maverick.zawislak@queensu.ca

D. J. Cerantola

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: david.cerantola@queensu.ca

A. M. Birk

Department of Mechanical and
Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: birk@me.queensu.ca

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 12, 2017; final manuscript received July 20, 2017; published online October 10, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 021202 (Oct 10, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1350; doi: 10.1115/1.4037864 History: Received July 12, 2017; Revised July 20, 2017

The accurate prediction of drag caused by bluff bodies present in aerospace applications, particularly at high angles of attack, was a challenge. An experimental and numerical investigation of a nacelle intended for fuselage-mounted aircraft engines was completed at several angles of attack between 0 deg and 45 deg with a Reynolds number of 6 × 105. Steady-flow simulations were conducted on hybrid grids using ANSYS fluent 15.0 with preference given to the realizable k–ε turbulence model. Both total drag and the pressure-to-viscous drag ratio increased with angle of attack as a consequence of greater flow separation on the suction surface. Near-field and far-field drag predictions had grid uncertainties below 2.5% and were within 10% of experiment, which were less than the uncertainties of the respective force balance and outlet traverse data at all angles of attack. Regions were defined on suction-side x-pressure force plots using the validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data-set that showed where and how much drag could be reduced. At 20 deg angle of attack, there was a potential to reduce up to 20% drag contained within the separated flow region.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Test section schematic

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Fig. 2

Boundary condition schematic

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Fig. 3

Mesh cut planes and surface mesh at α = 0 deg

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Fig. 4

Drag coefficient grid convergence with Rk–ε at α = 20 deg. Lines = polynomial curve fits. Extrapolated relative errors shown at Δx = 0.

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Fig. 5

SST traverse plane X-velocity contours at α = 20 deg. Looking downstream: (a) base grid and (b) locally refined grid.

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Fig. 6

Rk–ε velocity contour slices, streamlines, and zero x-velocity iso-surface at α = 20 deg

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Fig. 7

Rk–ε y = 0.17 H pressure contours at α = 20 deg

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Fig. 8

Traverse plane x-velocity contours at α = 20 deg. Looking downstream: (a) Rk–ε and (b) experiment.

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Fig. 9

Traverse plane x-vorticity contours at α = 20 deg: (a) Rk–ε and (b) experiment

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Fig. 10

Traverse plane azimuthal vorticity contours at α = 20 deg: (a) Rk–ε and (b) experiment

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Fig. 11

Rk–ε traverse plane Tu contours at α = 20 deg. Looking downstream.

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Fig. 12

Normalized CFD and experimental velocity traverse plane profiles at several angles of attack: (a) axial velocity at the nacelle-strut connection height y = 0.17 H, (b) axial velocity at the midplane nacelle height y = 0.27 H, (c) y-velocity at the midplane nacelle height y = 0.27 H, and (d) z-velocity at z = 0

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Fig. 13

Far-field drag components versus angle of attack

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Fig. 14

Near-field drag components versus angle of attack

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Fig. 15

Rk–ε suction side x-pressure force contours at α = 20 deg. Experimental results determined from string tufts.

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Fig. 16

Rk–ε predicted contributions of drag within the separated flow region

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