0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Influence of Fouling on Compressor Dynamics: Experimental and Modeling Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Gbanaibolou Jombo

Centre for Propulsion Engineering,
School of Aerospace, Transport
and Manufacturing,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: g.jombo@cranfield.ac.uk

Jiri Pecinka

Department of Air Force and Aircraft Technology,
University of Defence,
Brno 662 10, Czech Republic
e-mail: jiri.pecinka@unob.cz

Suresh Sampath

Centre for Propulsion Engineering,
School of Aerospace, Transport
and Manufacturing,
Cranfield University,
Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK

David Mba

Faculty of Technology,
De Montfort University,
Leicester LE1 9BH, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received June 7, 2017; final manuscript received July 24, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Brun.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(3), 032603 (Oct 17, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4037913 History: Received June 07, 2017; Revised July 24, 2017

The effect of compressor fouling on the performance of a gas turbine has been the subject of several papers; however, the goal of this paper is to address a more fundamental question of the effect of fouling, which is the onset of unstable operation of the compressor. Compressor fouling experiments have been carried out on a test rig refitted with TJ100 small jet engine with centrifugal compressor. Fouling on the compressor blade was simulated with texturized paint with average roughness value of 6 μm. Compressor characteristic was measured for both the clean (baseline) and fouled compressor blades at several rotational speeds by throttling the engine with variable exhaust nozzle. A Greitzer-type compression system model has been applied based on the geometric and performance parameters of the TJ100 small jet engine test rig. Frequency of plenum pressure fluctuation, the mean disturbance flow coefficient, and pressure-rise coefficient at the onset of plenum flow field disturbance predicted by the model was compared with the measurement for both the baseline and fouled engine. Model prediction of the flow field parameters at inception of unstable operation in the compressor showed good agreement with the experimental data. The results proved that used simple Greitzer model is suitable for prediction of the engine compressor unstable behavior and prediction of the mild surge inception point for both the clean and the fouled compressor.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Igie, U. , Pilidis, P. , Fouflias, D. , Ramsden, K. , and Laskaridis, P. , 2014, “ Industrial Gas Turbine Performance: Compressor Fouling and On-Line Washing,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(10), p. 101001. [CrossRef]
Meher-Homji, C. B. , Focke, A. B. , and Wooldridge, M. B. , 1989, “ Fouling of Axial Flow Compressors: Causes, Effects, Detention, and Control,” 18th Turbomachinery Symposium, College Station, TX, pp. 55–76. http://turbolab.tamu.edu/proc/turboproc/T18/T1855-76.pdf
Kurz, R. , and Brun, K. , 2012, “ Fouling Mechanisms in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(3), p. 032401. [CrossRef]
Meher-Homji, C. B. , and Bromley, A. , 2004, “ Gas Turbine Axial Compressor Fouling and Washing,” 33rd Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept. 20–23, pp. 163–191. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6eef/28eeafe2b893925b1741c003bba6cf36b7f4.pdf
Kurz, R. , and Brun, K. , 2000, “ Degradation in Gas Turbine Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(1), pp. 70–77. [CrossRef]
Aker, G. F. , and Saravanamuttoo, H. I. H. , 1989, “ Predicting Gas Turbine Performance Degradation Due to Compressor Fouling Using Computer Simulation Techniques,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 111(2), pp. 343–350. [CrossRef]
Rodríguez, C. , Sánchez, D. , Chacartegui, R. , Muñoz, A. , and Martínez, G. S. , 2013, “ Compressor Fouling: A Comparison of Different Fault Distributions Using a ‘Stage-Stacking’ Technique,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94010.
Melino, F. , Peretto, A. , and Spina, P. R. , 2010, “ Development and Validation of a Model for Axial Compressor Fouling Simulation,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22947.
Yang, H. , and Xu, H. , 2014, “ The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor,” Sci. World J., 2014, p. 906151.
Tarabrin, A. P. , Schurovsky, V. A. , Bodrov, A. I. , and Stalder, J.-P. , 1998, “ An Analysis of Axial Compressor Fouling and a Blade Cleaning Method,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(2), pp. 256–261. [CrossRef]
Song, T. W. , Sohn, J. L. , Kim, T. S. , Kim, J. H. , and Ro, S. T. , 2003, “ An Improved Analytic Model to Predict Fouling Phenomena in the Axial Compressor of Gas Turbine Engines,” International Gas Turbine Congress (IGTC), Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 2–7, Paper No. TS-095. https://nippon.zaidan.info/seikabutsu/2003/00916/pdf/igtc2003tokyo_ts095.pdf
Seddigh, F. , and Saravanamuttoo, H. I. H. , 1991, “ A Proposed Method for Assessing the Susceptibility of Axial Compressors to Fouling,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 113(4), pp. 595–601. [CrossRef]
Diakunchak, I. S. , 1992, “ Performance Deterioration in Industrial Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 114(2), pp. 161–168. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part 1: Theoretical Compression System Model,” J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 199–211. [CrossRef]
Hansen, K. E. , Jorgensen, P. , Larsen, P. S. , Jorgensen, P. , and Larsen, P. S. , 1981, “ Experimental and Theoretical Study of Surge in a Small Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 103(3), pp. 391–395. [CrossRef]
Moore, F. K. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1986, “ A Theory of Post-Stall Transients in Axial Compression Systems—Part I: Development of Equations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 108(1), pp. 68–76. [CrossRef]
Fink, D. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1992, “ Surge Dynamics in a Free Spool Centrifugal Compressor System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114(2), pp. 321–332. [CrossRef]
Gravdahl, J. T. , and Egeland, O. , 1997, “ Speed and Surge Control for a Low Order Centrifugal Compressor Model,” IEEE International Conference on Control Applications (CCA), Hartford, CT, Oct. 5–7, pp. 344–349.
Gravdahl, J. T. , and Egeland, O. , 1997, “ A Moore-Greitzer Axial Compressor Model With Spool Dynamics,” 36th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), San Diego, CA, Dec. 10–12, pp. 4714–4719.
Macdougal, I. , and Elder, R. L. , 1983, “ Simulation of Centrifugal Compressor Transient Performance for Process Plant Applications,” J. Eng. Power, 105(4), pp. 885–890. [CrossRef]
Spakovszky, Z. S. , 2001, “ Applications of Axial and Radial Compressor Dynamic System Modeling,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/8888
PBS, 2016, “ TJ100 Turbojet Engine,” PBS Velká Bíteš, Velká Bíteš, Czech Republic, accessed Dec. 14, 2016, http://www.pbsvb.com/getattachment/Zakaznicka-odvetvi/Letectvi/Aircraft-UAV-engines/ Proudovy-motor-TJ-100/Turbojet-engine_TJ100.pdf.aspx
Pecinka, J. , Jilek, A. , and Kmoch, P. , 2017, “ Small Jet Engine Centrifugal Compressor Stability Margin Assessment,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64444.
Yoon, S. Y. , Lin, Z. , and Allaire, P. E. , 2013, “ Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressors by Active Magnetic Bearings,” Advances in Industrial Control, Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 1–275. [CrossRef]
Aretakis, N. , Mathioudakis, K. , Kefalakis, M. , and Papailiou, K. , 2004, “ Turbocharger Unstable Operation Diagnosis Using Vibroacoustic Measurements,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 126(4), pp. 840–847. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Layout of small jet engine test rig showing measurement points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simulated fouling pattern in test rig compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Texturized fouling paint layer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Baseline versus fouled compressor pressure map

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Nondimensional map of clean and fouled compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Compressor discharge pressure oscillations in time and frequency domain for 90% RPM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Overview of a Greitzer compression system model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Geometric parameter of experimental test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Generalized pressure-rise characteristic for test rig based on experimental data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Plenum pressure disturbance frequency for baseline and fouled operations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Disturbance mean flow coefficient for baseline and fouled operations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Disturbance mean pressure-rise coefficient for baseline and fouled operations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Measured time waveform for the plenum pressure-rise coefficient at 0.85 of rated speed

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In