0
Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Lean-Premixed, Swirl-Stabilized Flame Response: Flame Structure and Response as a Function of Confinement

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander J. De Rosa

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stevens Institute of Technology,
Hoboken, NJ 07030
e-mail: Alexander.DeRosa@stevens.edu

Stephen J. Peluso

Turbulent Combustion Laboratory,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: sjp249@psu.edu

Bryan D. Quay

Turbulent Combustion Laboratory,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: bdq100@psu.edu

Domenic A. Santavicca

Turbulent Combustion Laboratory,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: DASME@engr.psu.edu

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 6, 2017; final manuscript received July 26, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(3), 031504 (Oct 17, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1310; doi: 10.1115/1.4037925 History: Received July 06, 2017; Revised July 26, 2017

The effect of confinement (flame–wall interactions) on the response of a turbulent, swirl-stabilized flame is experimentally examined, with a focus on the shape and structure of these flames. A series of three cylindrical combustors of 0.11, 0.15, and 0.19 m diameter are used to vary the degree of confinement experienced by the flame. Using CH* chemiluminescence images, the shape of the flame in each combustor is described. These images are then further analyzed and reveal marked similarities in the geometry and location of these flames in a defined “flame base” region near the combustor inlet. This similarity in location of the flame base leads to a similarity in the response of this portion of the flame to imposed oscillations. In particular, the phase of the fluctuations in this region is shown to be the same in each confinement. The nature of the fluctuations in the mean flame position is also shown to be similar in each confinement. These results indicate that the geometry of the flame in the base region is not a function of confinement and that the flames are responding to the same convective mechanisms, and in the same manner, in this region of the flame.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Huang, Y. , and Yang, V. , 2009, “ Dynamics and Stability of Lean-Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 35(4), pp. 293–364. [CrossRef]
Goy, C. J. , James, S. R. , and Rea, S. , 2005, “ Monitoring Combustion Instabilities: E. ON UK's Experience,” Prog. Astronaut. Aeronaut., 210, p. 163.
Fanaca, D. , Alemela, P. R. , Ettner, F. , Hirsch, C. , Sattelmayer, T. , and Schuermans, B. , 2008, “ Determination and Comparison of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Perfectly Premixed Flame in Both Single and Annular Combustion Chambers,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50781.
Merk, H. J. , 1957, “ An Analysis of Unstable Combustion of Premixed Gases,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 6(1), pp. 500–512. [CrossRef]
Fanaca, D. , Alemela, P. , Hirsch, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2010, “ Comparison of the Flow Field of a Swirl Stabilized Premixed Burner in an Annular and a Single Burner Combustion Chamber,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(7), p. 071502. [CrossRef]
Szedlmayer, M. T. , Quay, B. D. , Samarasinghe, J. , De Rosa, A. , Lee, J. G. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2011, “ Forced Flame Response of a Lean Premixed Multi-Nozzle Can Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46080.
Renard, P.-H. , Thevenin, D. , Rolon, J. , and Candel, S. , 2000, “ Dynamics of Flame/Vortex Interactions,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 26(3), pp. 225–282. [CrossRef]
Bunce, N. A. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2013, “ Interaction Between Swirl Number Fluctuations and Vortex Shedding in a Single-Nozzle Turbulent Swirling Fully-Premixed Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(2), p. 021503. [CrossRef]
Samarasinghe, J. , Peluso, S. J. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2015, “ The Three-Dimensional Structure of Swirl-Stabilized Flames in a Lean Premixed Multinozzle Can Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(3), p. 031502. [CrossRef]
Durox, D. , Prieur, K. , Schuller, T. , and Candel, S. , 2015, “ Different Flame Patterns Linked With Swirling Injector Interactions in an Annular Combustor,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42034.
Birbaud, A. , Durox, D. , Ducruix, S. , and Candel, S. , 2007, “ Dynamics of Confined Premixed Flames Submitted to Upstream Acoustic Modulations,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31(1), pp. 1257–1265. [CrossRef]
Cuquel, A. , Durox, D. , and Schuller, T. , 2013, “ Scaling the Flame Transfer Function of Confined Premixed Conical Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(1), pp. 1007–1014. [CrossRef]
De Rosa, A. J. , Peluso, S. J. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2015, “ The Effect of Confinement on the Structure and Dynamic Response of Lean-Premixed, Swirl-Stabilized Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(6), p. 061507. [CrossRef]
Hauser, M. , Hirsch, C. , and Sattelmayer, T. , 2011, “ Influence of the Confinement on the Flame Transfer Function,” 18th International Congress on Sound and Vibration, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 10–14, pp. 10–14.
Fu, Y. , Cai, J. , Jeng, S.-M. , and Mongia, H. , 2005, “ Confinement Effects on the Swirling Flow of a Counter-Rotating Swirl Cup,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68622.
Schuller, T. , Durox, D. , and Candel, S. , 2003, “ A Unified Model for the Prediction of Laminar Flame Transfer Functions: Comparisons Between Conical and V-Flame Dynamics,” Combust. Flame, 134(1–2), pp. 21–34. [CrossRef]
Chterev, I. , Foley, C. , Foti, D. , Kostka, S. , Caswell, A. , Jiang, N. , Lynch, A. , Noble, D. , Menon, S. , Seitzman, J. , and Lieuwen, T. C. , 2014, “ Flame and Flow Topologies in an Annular Swirling Flow,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 186(8), pp. 1041–1074. [CrossRef]
Marble, F. E. , and Candel, S. M. , 1979, “ An Analytical Study of the Non-Steady Behavior of Large Combustors,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 17(1), pp. 761–769. [CrossRef]
Kim, D. , Lee, J. G. , Quay, B. D. , Santavicca, D. A. , Kim, K. , and Srinivasan, S. , 2010, “ Effect of Flame Structure on the Flame Transfer Function in a Premixed Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(2), p. 021502. [CrossRef]
Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , Noiray, N. , and Candel, S. , 2009, “ Experimental Analysis of Nonlinear Flame Transfer Functions for Different Flame Geometries,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(1), pp. 1391–1398. [CrossRef]
Palies, P. , Durox, D. , Schuller, T. , and Candel, S. , 2010, “ The Combined Dynamics of Swirler and Turbulent Premixed Swirling Flames,” Combust. Flame, 157(9), pp. 1698–1717. [CrossRef]
Ranalli, J. , and Ferguson, D. , 2012, “ Measurement of Flame Frequency Response Functions Under Exhaust Gas Recirculation Conditions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(9), p. 091502. [CrossRef]
Kedia, K. , Altay, H. , and Ghoniem, A. , 2011, “ Impact of Flame-Wall Interaction on Premixed Flame Dynamics and Transfer Function Characteristics,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(1), pp. 1113–1120. [CrossRef]
Tay-Wo-Chong, L. , and Polifke, W. , 2013, “ Large Eddy Simulation-Based Study of the Influence of Thermal Boundary Condition and Combustor Confinement on Premix Flame Transfer Functions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 135(2), p. 021502. [CrossRef]
Clark, T. P. , 1958, “ Studies of OH, CO, CH and C2 Radiation From Laminar and Turbulent Propane-Air and Ethylene-Air Flames,” Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. 4266. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19930085300.pdf
Lee, J. , Gonzalez, E. , and Santavicca, D. , 2005, “ On the Applicability of Chemiluminescence to the Estimation of Unsteady Heat-Release During Unstable Combustion in Lean Premixed Combustor,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-3575.
Deans, S. R. , 2007, The Radon Transform and Some of Its Applications, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY.
De Rosa, A. J. , Samarasinghe, J. , Peluso, S. J. , Quay, B. D. , and Santavicca, D. A. , 2015, “ Flame Area Fluctuation Measurements in Velocity-Forced Premixed Gas Turbine Flames,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 138(4), p. 041507. [CrossRef]
Abom, M. , and Boden, H. , 1988, “ Error Analysis of Two-Microphone Measurements in Ducts With Flow,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 83(6), pp. 2429–2438. [CrossRef]
Waser, M. P. , and Crocker, M. J. , 1984, “ Introduction to the Two-Microphone Cross-Spectral Method of Determining Sound Intensity,” Noise Control Eng. J., 22(3), pp. 76–85. [CrossRef]
Kundu, P. K. , Cohen, I. M. , and Dowling, D. R. , 2012, Fluid Mechanics, 5th ed., Academic Press, Waltham, MA.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Test section geometry [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of projection flame images in three different diameter combustors (images shown to scale) [13]: (a) 0.11 m, (b) 0.15 m, and (c) 0.19 m

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Illustration of the image processing procedure. Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6 in the 0.11 m diameter combustor [13]. (a) Projection (line-of-sight) image, (b) emission image (deconvoluted projection image), and (c) revolved image (r-weighted emission image).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mean, RMS amplitude and phase images. Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6 in the 0.19 m diameter combustor. (a) Mean flame image, (b) RMS fluctuation amplitude image, and (c) phase image.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mean flame position overlaid on the time-averaged emission image. Operating condition: 30 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.7 in the 0.19 m diameter combustor.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of time-averaged, revolved flame images with mean flame positions overlaid. Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6. (a) 0.11 m diameter combustor, (b) 0.15 m diameter combustor, and (c) 0.19 m diameter combustor.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of time-averaged, revolved flame images with mean flame positions overlaid. Operating condition: 22.5 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.65. (a) 0.11 m diameter combustor, (b) 0.15 m diameter combustor, and (c) 0.19 m diameter combustor.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Time-averaged mean flame position as a function of confinement. (a) Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6. (b) Operating condition 22.5 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.65.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Example of flame base region analyzed for further study. Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6 in the 0.11 m diameter combustor.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Phase of the flame response in the defined flame base region as a function of confinement. (a) Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6. (b) Operating condition 22.5 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.65.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Motion of the mean flame position over the forcing period. Operating condition: 22.5 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing at 400 Hz, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.65.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Motion of the mean flame position over the forcing period. Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing at 200 Hz, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Phase of the flame response in the defined flame wall region as a function of confinement. (a) Operating condition: 25 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.6. (b) Operating condition 22.5 m/s inlet velocity, 5% forcing, 473 K preheat and Φ = 0.65.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In