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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effects of Fuel Molecular Weight on Emissions in a Jet Flame and a Model Gas Turbine Combustor

[+] Author and Article Information
Anandkumar Makwana

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: axm571@psu.edu

Suresh Iyer

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: suiyer@engr.psu.edu

Milton Linevsky

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: mlinevsky@gmail.com

Robert Santoro

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: rjs2@engr.psu.edu

Thomas Litzinger

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: TALME@engr.psu.edu

Jacqueline O'Connor

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jxo22@engr.psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 11, 2017; final manuscript received July 25, 2017; published online October 17, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(3), 031505 (Oct 17, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1347; doi: 10.1115/1.4037928 History: Received July 11, 2017; Revised July 25, 2017

The objective of this study is to understand the effects of fuel volatility on soot emissions. This effect is investigated in two experimental configurations: a jet flame and a model gas turbine combustor. The jet flame provides information about the effects of fuel on the spatial development of aromatics and soot in an axisymmetric, co-flow, laminar flame. The data from the model gas turbine combustor illustrate the effect of fuel volatility on net soot production under conditions similar to an actual engine at cruise. Two fuels with different boiling points are investigated: n-heptane/n-dodecane mixture and n-hexadecane/n-dodecane mixture. The jet flames are nonpremixed and rich premixed flames in order to have fuel conditions similar to those in the primary zone of an aircraft engine combustor. The results from the jet flames indicate that the peak soot volume fraction produced in the n-hexadecane fuel is slightly higher as compared to the n-heptane fuel for both nonpremixed and premixed flames. Comparison of aromatics and soot volume fraction in nonpremixed and premixed flames shows significant differences in the spatial development of aromatics and soot along the downstream direction. The results from the model combustor indicate that, within experiment uncertainty, the net soot production is similar in both n-heptane and n-hexadecane fuel mixtures. Finally, we draw conclusions about important processes for soot formation in gas turbine combustor and what can be learned from laboratory-scale flames.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of burner and the burner system

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Fig. 2

Schematic of model gas turbine combustor [7]

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Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the air swirler [7]

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the fuel injector [7]

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Fig. 5

Visible flame images obtained at same camera operating condition: (a) C7Φjet = Inf, (b) C16Φjet = Inf, (c) C7Φjet = 24, (d) C16Φjet = 24, (e) C7Φjet = 6, and (f) C16Φjet = 6

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Fig. 6

Two-dimensional small aromatics (counts) obtained for: (a) C7Φjet = Inf, (b) C16Φjet = Inf, (c) C7Φjet = 24, (d) C16Φjet = 24, (e) C7Φjet = 6, and (f) C16Φjet = 6

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Fig. 7

Comparison of temperature measurement for the two fuels. Top row: radial measurement at 5 mm HAB; (a) Φjet = Inf, (b) Φjet = 24, and (c) Φjet = 6. Bottom row: axial measurement until 20 mm HAB for (d) Φjet = Inf, (e) Φjet = 24, and (f) Φjet = 6.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the consumption of n-dodecane, n-heptane, and n-hexadecane in a pyrolysis simulation under homogeneous reactor condition at constant temperature (T = 1600 K) and pressure (1 atm) using CHEMKIN

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Fig. 9

Comparison of C3H3 and C4H6 mole fraction for C7 and C16 fuel mixtures in a pyrolysis simulation under homogeneous reactor condition at constant temperature (T = 1600 K) and pressure (1 atm) using CHEMKIN

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Fig. 10

Two-dimensional large aromatics (counts) obtained for: (a) C7Φjet = Inf, (b) C16Φjet = Inf, (c) C7Φjet = 24, (d) C16Φjet = 24, (e) C7Φjet = 6, and (f) C16Φjet = 6

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Fig. 11

Two-dimensional soot volume fraction (ppm) obtained for: (a) C7Φjet = Inf, (b) C16Φjet = Inf, (c) C7Φjet = 24, (d) C16Φjet = 24, (e) C7Φjet = 6, and (f) C16Φjet = 6

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Fig. 12

Centerline comparison for C16 and C7 fuels: Soot volume fraction for (a) Φjet = Inf, (b) Φjet = 24, and (c) Φjet = 6. Maximum soot volume fraction for (d) Φjet = Inf, (e) Φjet = 24, and (f) Φjet = 6. Note: plots are 1 mm moving average.

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Fig. 13

Line-of-sight soot volume fraction results for JP-8, C7 fuel and C16 fuel as a function of Φglobal

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