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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Effect of Fuel Reactivity on Ignitability and Combustion Phasing in a Heavy-Duty Engine Simulation for Mixing-Controlled and Partially Premixed Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander K. Voice

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Novi, MI 48377
e-mail: alexander.voice@aramcoservices.com

Praveen Kumar, Yu Zhang

Aramco Services Company,
Aramco Research Center-Detroit,
Novi, MI 48377

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 14, 2017; final manuscript received August 1, 2017; published online October 31, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(4), 042801 (Oct 31, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4038015 History: Received February 14, 2017; Revised August 01, 2017

Light-end fuels have recently garnered interest as potential fuel for advanced compression ignition (CI) engines. This next generation of engines, which aim to combine the high efficiency of diesel engines with the relative simplicity of gasoline engines, may allow engine manufacturers to continue improving efficiency and reducing emissions without a large increase in engine and aftertreatment system complexity. In this work, a 1D heavy-duty engine model was validated with measured data and then used to generate boundary conditions for the detailed chemical kinetic simulation corresponding to various combustion modes and operating points. Using these boundary conditions, homogeneous simulations were conducted for 242 fuels with research octane number (RON) from 40 to 100 and sensitivity (S) from 0 to 12. Combustion phasing (CA50) was most dependent on RON and less dependent on S under all conditions. Both RON and S had a greater effect on combustion phasing under partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) conditions (19.3 deg) than under mixing-controlled combustion (MCC) conditions (5.8 deg). The effect of RON and S were also greatest for the lowest reactivity (RON > 90) fuels and under low-load conditions. The results for CA50 reflect the relative ignition delay for the various fuels at the start-of-injection (SOI) temperature. At higher SOI temperatures (>950K), CA50 was found to be less dependent on fuel sensitivity due to the convergence of ignition delay behavior of different fuels in the high-temperature region. Combustion of light-end fuels in CI engines can be an important opportunity for regulators, consumers, and engine-makers alike. However, selection of the right fuel specifications will be critical in development of the combustion strategy. This work, therefore, provides a first look at quantifying the effect of light-end fuel chemistry on advanced CI engine combustion across the entire light-end fuel reactivity space and provides a comparison of the trends for different combustion modes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Relative engine-out NOx and soot emissions as a function of local fuel–air equivalence ratio (Recreated from Ref. [19])

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Fig. 2

Boiling ranges of regular US market gasoline and No. 2 on-road diesel fuel as determined in the ASTM D86 test [48]

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Fig. 3

Distribution of RON for straight-run naphthas [49] and US regular market gasoline [48]

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Fig. 4

Distribution of sensitivity for straight-run naphthas [49] and US regular market gasoline [48]

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Fig. 5

Fuel production ratio for transport fuels. Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA) [59], Wood Mackenzie [60], Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries [61], and World Energy Council [62]

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Fig. 6

Flow diagram for the Cummins 15 L heavy duty engine

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Fig. 7

Predicted RON for toluene-isooctane-n-heptane blends using the correlation from Ref. [74]

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Fig. 8

Predicted sensitivity for toluene-isooctane-n-heptane blends using the correlation from Ref. [74]

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Fig. 9

In-cylinder temperature and pressure trajectories predicted for the RON and MON tests and conditions at start of injection (SOI) in the heavy-duty engine modeled in this work

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Fig. 10

Comparison of predicted ignition delay for toluene, n-heptane, isooctane blends under constant volume and adiabatic conditions with measurements produced in a high-pressure shock-tube [79]

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Fig. 11

Max temperature and combustion phasing for various fuels at B10 PPCI operating point

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Fig. 12

Combustion phasing for various fuels at B50 PPCI operating point

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Fig. 13

Combustion phasing for various fuels at B50 MCC operating point

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Fig. 14

Combustion phasing for various fuels at B75 MCC operating point

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Fig. 15

Ignition delay for 100 RON fuels with different sensitivity as a function of temperature and using pressure and composition for the B50 PPCI point

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Fig. 16

Max adiabatic motored temperature for a gas with a constant polytropic coefficient of 1.35 as a function of start of compression (SOC) temperature and compression ratio

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Fig. 17

Effect of EGR on combustion phasing for four fuels at the B50 operating point under PPCI and MCC combustion conditions

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Fig. 18

Distribution plots showing CA50 for various fuel chemistries at three different engine operating modes

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Fig. 19

Distribution plots at the B50 and B10 PPCI operating modes, showing CA50 only for fuels igniting at the B10 condition

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Fig. 20

Difference in ignition delay for PRF 92 versus PRF 60 fuels with four different operating conditions (P and xi) as a function of temperature. The dot shows the temperature at SOI for each operating condition.

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Fig. 21

Ignition envelope as a function of compression ratio and SOC temperature for various fuels using the in-cylinder composition from the B50 PPCI operating point (Table 2)

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Fig. 22

In-cylinder pressure analysis for the Cummins ISX-15 operating at the B50 point and mixing-controlled combustion conditions. Comparison of measured data with calibrated model.

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Fig. 23

In-cylinder pressure analysis for the Cummins ISX-15 operating at the B50 point and partially premixed conditions. Comparison of measured data with calibrated model.

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Fig. 24

GT-power model validation for the Cummins ISX-15 model with 17.3:1 compression ratio, compared with measured data, at the B50 operating point for PPCI conditions

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Fig. 25

Measured and predicted NOx emissions for Cummins ISX-15 engine operating at the B50 load point with CR 17.3 under mixing-controlled (MCC) and partially premixed (PPCI) combustion conditions. Showing ±0.1 g/kW h error band.

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