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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Low Load Operation Range Extension by Autothermal On-Board Syngas Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
Max H. Baumgärtner

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching D-85747, Germany
e-mail: baumgaertner@td.mw.tum.de

Thomas Sattelmayer

Lehrstuhl für Thermodynamik,
Technische Universität München,
Garching D-85747, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 20, 2017; final manuscript received July 26, 2017; published online October 31, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(4), 041505 (Oct 31, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1378; doi: 10.1115/1.4038016 History: Received July 20, 2017; Revised July 26, 2017

The increasing amount of volatile renewable energy sources drives the necessity of flexible conventional power plants to compensate for fluctuations of the power supply. Gas turbines in a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) adjust the power output quickly but a sudden increase of CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions limits their turn-down ratio. To extend the turn-down ratio, part of the fuel can be processed to syngas, which exerts a higher reactivity. An autothermal on-board syngas generator in combination with two different burner concepts for natural gas (NG) and syngas mixtures is presented in this study. A mixture of NG, water vapor, and air reacts catalytically in an autothermal reactor test rig to form syngas. At atmospheric pressure, the fuel processor generates syngas with a hydrogen content of −30 vol % and a temperature of 800 K within a residence time of 200 ms. One concept for the combustion of NG and syngas mixtures comprises a generic swirl stage with a central lance injector for the syngas. The second concept includes a central swirl stage with an outer ring of jets. The combustion is analyzed for both concepts by OH*-chemiluminescence, lean blow out (LBO) limit, and gaseous emissions. The central lance concept with syngas injection exhibits an LBO adiabatic flame temperature that is 150 K lower than in premixed NG operation. For the second concept, an extension of almost 200 K with low CO emission levels can be reached. This study shows that autothermal on-board syngas generation is feasible and efficient in terms of turn-down ratio extension and CO burn-out.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Process scheme of on-board fuel processor for extension of part load regime [16]

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Fig. 2

Sketch of the fuel processor test rig

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the generic swirl burner test rig with lance injector

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Fig. 4

Sketch of the central swirl-stabilized jet burner test rig

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Fig. 5

Measured dry species mole fractions along the fuel processor for Air/C = 2.5, H2O/C = 2.5, and m˙  = 8.5 g s−1

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Fig. 6

Measured gas temperature along the fuel processor for Air/C = 2.5, H2O/C = 2.5, and m˙  = 8.5 g s−1

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Fig. 7

Averaged OH*-chemiluminescence images showing the differences between “with lance” and “without lance” configuration for pure NG

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Fig. 8

Adiabatic flame temperature at LBO for different momentum ratios of the syngas injection and total air mass flows

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Fig. 9

Adiabatic flame temperature at LBO for different momentum ratios of the syngas injection relative to air flow

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Fig. 10

Averaged OH*-chemiluminescence images showing the differences between low, medium, and high momentum syngas injection

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Fig. 11

CO emissions of different configurations and adiabatic flame temperatures normalized to 15% oxygen

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Fig. 12

NOx emissions of different configurations and adiabatic flame temperatures normalized to 15% oxygen

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Fig. 13

Averaged OH*-chemiluminescence images showing the differences between premixed, piloted NG, and piloted NG/syngas operation

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Fig. 14

CO emissions of swirl-stabilized jet burner with different operation modes and adiabatic flame temperatures normalized to 15% oxygen

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Fig. 15

NOx emissions of swirl-stabilized jet burner with different operation modes and adiabatic flame temperatures normalized to 15% oxygen

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