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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Numerical Study on the Reduction of NOx Emissions From Pulse Detonation Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Neda Djordjevic

Chair of Combustion Kinetics,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10623, Germany
e-mail: neda.djordjevic@tu-berlin.de

Niclas Hanraths

Chair of Combustion Kinetics,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10623, Germany

Joshua Gray

Chair of Fluid Dynamics,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10623, Germany

Phillip Berndt

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics,
Freie Universität Berlin,
Berlin 14195, Germany

Jonas Moeck

Chair of Combustion Dynamics,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Berlin 10623, Germany

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 14, 2017; final manuscript received July 31, 2017; published online October 31, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(4), 041504 (Oct 31, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1362; doi: 10.1115/1.4038041 History: Received July 14, 2017; Revised July 31, 2017

A change in the combustion concept of gas turbines from conventional isobaric to constant volume combustion, such as in pulse detonation combustion (PDC), promises a significant increase in gas turbine efficiency. Current research focuses on the realization of reliable PDC operation and its challenging integration into a gas turbine. The topic of pollutant emissions from such systems has so far received very little attention. Few rare studies indicate that the extreme combustion conditions in PDC systems can lead to high emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Therefore, it is essential already at this stage of development to begin working on primary measures for NOx emissions reduction if commercialization is to be feasible. The present study evaluates the potential of different primary methods for reducing NOx emissions produced during PDC of hydrogen. The considered primary methods involve utilization of lean combustion mixtures or its dilution by steam injection or exhaust gas recirculation. The influence of such measures on the detonability of the combustion mixture has been evaluated based on detonation cell sizes modeled with detailed chemistry. For the mixtures and operating conditions featuring promising detonability, NOx formation in the detonation wave has been simulated by solving the one-dimensional (1D) reacting Euler equations. The study enables an insight into the potential and limitations of considered measures for NOx emissions reduction and lays the groundwork for optimized operation of PDC systems.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

PDC cycle according to Ref. [15]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

NOx concentrations of hydrogen-fueled PDC as a function of mixture equivalence ratio for different firing rates and charge lengths measured in Ref. [18]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Validation of the detonation cell size model in comparison with experimental data from Refs. [40] and [41] at pressure of 100 kPa

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Fig. 4

Validation of the 1D model

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Fig. 5

Detonation cell sizes for various mixtures and initial conditions (T, P)

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Fig. 6

von Neumann pressure (thick lines) and temperature (thin lines) for various mixtures and initial conditions (T, P)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Ignition delay time at von Neumann conditions for various mixtures and initial conditions (T, P)

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Fig. 8

Pressure (solid line) and NOx concentration profiles (dashed line) at different time instances for ϕ = 1.0, T = 300 K, P = 1 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pressure (solid line) and NOx concentration profiles (dashed line) at different time instances for ϕ = 0.7, T = 400 K, P = 4 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Pressure (solid line) and NOx concentration profiles (dashed line) at different time instances for ϕ = 1.0, T = 300 K, P = 4 atm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pressure (solid line) and NOx concentration profiles (dashed line) at different time instances for ϕ = 1.0, T = 600 K, P = 4 atm, X(H2O) = 13%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure (solid line) and NOx concentration profiles (dashed line) at different time instances for ϕ = 1.0, T = 400 K, P = 4 atm, X(O2) = 11%

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