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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental and Modeling Study of C1C3 Hydrocarbon Ignition in the Presence of Nitric Oxide

[+] Author and Article Information
Ponnuthurai Gokulakrishnan

Mem. ASME
Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.,
8940 Old Annapolis Road., Suite L.,
Columbia, MD 21045
e-mail: gokul@csefire.com

Casey C. Fuller

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.,
8940 Old Annapolis Road., Suite L.,
Columbia, MD 21045
e-mail: cfuller@csefire.com

Michael S. Klassen

Mem. ASME
Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc.,
8940 Old Annapolis Road., Suite L.,
Columbia, MD 21045
e-mail: mklassen@csefire.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 22, 2017; final manuscript received August 4, 2017; published online November 7, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(4), 041509 (Nov 07, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1385; doi: 10.1115/1.4038079 History: Received July 22, 2017; Revised August 04, 2017

Nitric oxide (NO) produced during combustion will be present in vitiated air used in many devices. An experimental and modeling investigation of the effect of NO on the ignition of C1–C3 hydrocarbon fuels, namely, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H6, is presented. These molecules are important intermediate species generated during the decomposition of long-chain hydrocarbon fuel components typically present in jet fuels. Moreover, CH4 and C2H6 are major components of natural gas fuels. Although the interaction between NOx and CH4 has been studied extensively, limited experimental work is reported on C2H4, C2H6, and C3H6. As a continuation of previous work with C3H8, ignition delay time (IDT) measurements were obtained using a flow reactor facility with the alkanes (CH4 and C2H6) and olefins (C2H4 and C3H6) at 900 K and 950 K temperatures with 15 mole% and 21 mole% O2. Based on the experimental data, the overall effectiveness of NO in promoting ignition is found to be: CH4 > C3H6 > C3H8 > C2H6 > C2H4. A detailed kinetic mechanism is used for model predictions as well as for reaction path analysis. The reaction between HO2 and NO plays a critical role in promoting the ignition by generating the OH radical. In addition, various important fuel-dependent reaction pathways also promote the ignition. H-atom abstraction by NO2 has significant contribution to the ignition of C2H4 and C2H6, whereas the reaction between NO2 and allyl radical (aC3H5) is an important route for the ignition of C3H6.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the major reaction pathway for the formation of smaller alkyl radicals and alkene during the oxidation of long-chain hydrocarbon fuels

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the fuel/oxidizer premixing section of the flow reactor apparatus. Dimensions are in millimeters.

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Fig. 3

Example of the solenoid, PMT, and laser absorption signals used to determine the IDT (τign)

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Fig. 4

JSR experimental data of Dagaut et al. [18] are compared with the current model for the effect of NO on C2H4 oxidation. Key: symbols—experiments; lines—model.

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Fig. 5

JSR experimental data of Dagaut et al. [18] are compared with the current model for the effect of NO on C2H6 oxidation. Key: Symbols—experiments; lines—model.

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Fig. 6

Reactions sensitivity coefficients for the conditions in Fig. 5 (Dagaut et al. [18]) are compared with ignition of C2H6/air (present work) at 950 K and ϕ = 0.5

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Fig. 7

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric CH4/air mixture at 950 K. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions.

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Fig. 8

Reaction sensitivity coefficient for the IDT of CH4/air at 950 K with and without NO

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Fig. 9

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric C2H6/air at 900 and 950 K. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions; dashed line—predictions at 900 K without reactions (R9) and (R10).

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Fig. 10

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric C2H6 mixtures at 950 K with 15 mole% and 21 mole% O2. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions.

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Fig. 11

Reaction sensitivity coefficient for the IDT of C2H6/air at 950 K with and without NO

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Fig. 12

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric C2H4/air mixture at 950 K. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions.

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Fig. 13

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric C2H4 mixtures at 950 K with 15 mole% and 21 mole% O2. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions.

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Fig. 14

Reaction sensitivity coefficient for the IDT of C2H4/air at 950 K with and without NO

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Fig. 15

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric C3H6/air at 900 K and 950 K. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions.

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Fig. 16

Effect of NOx addition on the IDT of stoichiometric C3H6 mixtures at 950 K with 15 mole% and 21 mole% O2. Key: symbols—experimental data; line—model predictions.

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Fig. 17

Reaction sensitivity coefficient for the IDT of C3H6/air at 950 K with and without NO

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Fig. 18

Change in IDT per ppm of NOx addition based on the experimental data at 950 K for stoichiometric fuel/air

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