Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Cycle Innovations

Characterization of Nonequilibrium Condensation of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in a de Laval Nozzle

[+] Author and Article Information
Claudio Lettieri

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 2628, The Netherlands
e-mail: c.lettieri-1@tudelft.nl

Derek Paxson

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: dpaxson@mit.edu

Zoltan Spakovszky

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: zolti@mit.edu

Peter Bryanston-Cross

School of Engineering,
Warwick University,
Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
e-mail: P.J.Bryanston-Cross@warwick.ac.uk

Contributed by the Cycle Innovations Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 25, 2017; final manuscript received August 1, 2017; published online November 7, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(4), 041701 (Nov 07, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1395; doi: 10.1115/1.4038082 History: Received July 25, 2017; Revised August 01, 2017

Carbon capture and storage could significantly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. One of the major limitations of this technology is the energy penalty for the compression of CO2 to supercritical conditions. To reduce the power requirements, supercritical carbon dioxide compressors must operate near saturation where phase change effects are important. Nonequilibrium condensation can occur at the leading edge of the compressor, causing performance and stability issues. The characterization of the fluid at these conditions is vital to enable advanced compressor designs at enhanced efficiency levels but the analysis is challenging due to the lack of data on metastable fluid properties. In this paper, we assess the behavior and nucleation characteristics of high-pressure subcooled CO2 during the expansion in a de Laval nozzle. The assessment is conducted with numerical calculations and corroborated by experimental measurements. The Wilson line is determined via optical measurements in the range of 41–82 bar. The state of the metastable fluid is characterized through pressure and density measurements, with the latter obtained in a first-of-its-kind laser interferometry setup. The inlet conditions of the nozzle are moved close to the critical point to allow for reduced margins to condensation. The analysis suggests that direct extrapolation using the Span and Wagner equation of state (S–W EOS) model yields results within 2% of the experimental data. The results are applied to define inlet conditions for a supercritical carbon dioxide compressor. Full-scale compressor experiments demonstrate that the reduced inlet temperature can decrease the shaft power input by 16%.

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Fig. 1

Temperature–entropy diagram illustrating compression of CO2 for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Centrifugal compressors. The state of the fluid at the inlet of the last block is supercritical and close to saturation. (Figure courtesy of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries.)

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Fig. 2

Isocontours of normalized pressure (top) from numerical calculations and corresponding fluid state in a pressure/temperature diagram (bottom). The isentropic expansion near the compressor leading edge takes the CO2 from supercritical state into the metastable region where nonequilibrium condensation might occur.

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Fig. 3

Temperature–pressure diagram illustrating NIST REFPROP table extrapolation for enthalpy. Top: equilibrium Span and Wagner EOS bottom: extrapolated metastable Span and Wagner EOS.

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Fig. 4

Schematic of blowdown test facility

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Fig. 5

Schematic of blowdown test facility

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Fig. 6

Computed normalized total pressure distribution at throat of nozzle test section (bottom) showing thin boundary layer thickness and nearly 1D flow. Contour lines indicate 3% change in spanwise total pressure. Experimental interferometric measurements (top) confirm thin boundary layer.

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Fig. 7

Shearing interferometer setup

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Fig. 8

Temperature–entropy diagram illustrating the set of tests used to determine the Wilson line

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Fig. 9

Condensation fog in the nozzle test section for test runs summarized in Table 1

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Fig. 10

Fringe pattern visible up to the condensation point allows for density measurements into the metastable region

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Fig. 11

Pressure measurements for Case 4. Experimental measurements are compared with an isentropic expansion toidentify the pressure rise due to condensation onset. The nozzle throat is located at x/L = 0.

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Fig. 12

Temperature–entropy diagram illustrating Wilson line measurements. The spinodal limit is determined using the NIST formulation of the Span and Wagner EOS model.

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Fig. 13

Temperature–entropy diagram illustrating comparison of the Wilson line measurements with the work by Bier et al. [9,10]

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Fig. 14

Measured subcooling normalized by the critical temperature versus reduced entropy

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Fig. 15

Density in the converging part of the nozzle. Calculations (red) and results of a 1D isentropic expansion using the Span and Wagner EOS model are compared with experiments (blue) at 67 bar in the charge tank.

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Fig. 16

Density in the converging part of the nozzle. Calculations (red) and results of a 1D isentropic expansion using the Span and Wagner EOS model are compared with experiments (blue) at 74 bar in the charge tank.

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Fig. 17

Experimentally derived condensation limits on compressor inlet conditions for various maximum leading edge Mach numbers

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Fig. 18

Computed region of metastable, condensation free fluid. The computations suggest condensation cannot occur for compressor inlet conditions above the experimentally determined limit.

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Fig. 19

Measured static pressure for each test case. The label indicate the corresponding measured nozzle inlet static pressure.

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Fig. 20

Measured density for test case 1



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