Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

High Momentum Jet Flames at Elevated Pressure: Detailed Investigation of Flame Stabilization With Simultaneous Particle Image Velocimetry and OH-LIF

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Severin

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Pfaffenwaldring 38-40,
Stuttgart D-70569, Germany
e-mail: michael.severin@dlr.de

Oliver Lammel, Holger Ax, Rainer Lückerath, Wolfgang Meier, Manfred Aigner

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Combustion Technology,
Pfaffenwaldring 38-40,
Stuttgart D-70569, Germany

Johannes Heinze

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
Linder Höhe,
Köln D-51147, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 20, 2017; final manuscript received August 8, 2017; published online November 7, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(4), 041508 (Nov 07, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1379; doi: 10.1115/1.4038126 History: Received July 20, 2017; Revised August 08, 2017

A model FLOX® combustor, featuring a single high momentum premixed jet flame, has been investigated using laser diagnostics in an optically accessible combustion chamber at a pressure of 8 bar. The model combustor was designed as a large single eccentric nozzle main burner (Ø 40 mm) together with an adjoining pilot burner and was operated with natural gas. To gain insight into the flame stabilization mechanisms with and without piloting, simultaneous particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements have been performed at numerous two-dimensional (2D) sections of the flame. Additional OH-LIF measurements without PIV particles were analyzed quantitatively resulting in absolute OH concentrations and temperature fields. The flow field looks rather similar for both the unpiloted and the piloted cases, featuring a large recirculation zone next to the high momentum jet. However, flame shape and position change drastically. For the unpiloted case, the flame is lifted and widely distributed. Isolated flame kernels are found at the flame root in the vicinity of small-scale vortices. For the piloted flame, on the other hand, both pilot and main flame are attached to the burner base plate, and flame stabilization seems to take place on much smaller spatial scales with a connected flame front and no isolated flame kernels. The single-shot analysis gives rise to the assumption that for the unpiloted case, small-scale vortices act like the pilot burner flow in the opposed case and constantly impinge and ignite the high momentum jet at its root.

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Fig. 3

Laser diagnostics measurement planes. Positions for orientation S (side view): z = 0, ±10, ±20, ±33.8 mm. Positions for orientation T (top view): y = ±10, ±30 mm. Laser sheet extent in the axial direction for the first and second window segments is x≈ 5–150 mm and x≈ 190–340 mm.

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Fig. 2

Model combustor and optical combustion chamber in operation at the high-pressure test rig HBK-S

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Fig. 1

Model combustor with dimensions and used coordinate system

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Fig. 6

Particle image velocimetry average streamlines and colored velocity magnitude. The white contour at vx = 0 m/s shows recirculation zones.

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Fig. 7

Averaged temperature distributions from OH-LIF thermometry

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Fig. 5

OH*-CL average images, normalized to a common maximum. Left images show the unpiloted case (U), and right images show the piloted case (P). For each case, side view (S) and top view (T) are shown. These abbreviations hold for all figures.

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Fig. 4

Estimated OH-LIF temperature evaluation error

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Fig. 8

Three-dimensional reconstruction of average PIV data. Shown are isosurfaces of axial velocity.

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Fig. 9

Three-dimensional reconstruction of average temperature data from OH-LIF. Isosurface at 1800 K is omitted for caseP.

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Fig. 10

Simultaneous single shots of OH-LIF and PIV. The respective front and rear single shots are put together arbitrarily. Left images show the unpiloted case U, and right images show the piloted case P. Top four rows show the side view S, at different instants of time. Bottom two rows show the top view T, at different instants of time.



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