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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Fan Similarity Model for the Fan–Intake Interaction Problem

[+] Author and Article Information
Mauro Carnevale

Department of Engineering Science,
Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: mauro.carnevale@eng.ox.ac.uk

Feng Wang

Department of Engineering Science,
Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: feng.wang@eng.ox.ac.uk

Anthony B. Parry

Rolls-Royce plc,
Derby DE24 8BJ, UK
e-mail: anthony.parry@rolls-royce.com

Jeffrey S. Green

Rolls-Royce plc,
Derby DE24 8BJ, UK
e-mail: jeff.green@Rolls-Royce.com

Luca di Mare

Department of Engineering Science,
Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: luca.dimare@eng.ox.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Aircraft Engine Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 11, 2017; final manuscript received August 23, 2017; published online December 19, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(5), 051202 (Dec 19, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1345; doi: 10.1115/1.4038247 History: Received July 11, 2017; Revised August 23, 2017

Very high bypass ratio turbofans with large fan tip diameter are an effective way of improving the propulsive efficiency of civil aero-engines. Such engines, however, require larger and heavier nacelles, which partially offset any gains in specific fuel consumptions. This drawback can be mitigated by adopting thinner walls for the nacelle and by shortening the intake section. This binds the success of very high bypass ratio technologies to the problem of designing an intake with thin lips and short diffuser section, which is well matched to a low speed fan. Consequently, the prediction of the mutual influence between the fan and the intake flow represents a crucial step in the design process. Considerable effort has been devoted in recent years to the study of models for the effects of the fan on the lip stall characteristics and the operability of the whole installation. The study of such models is motivated by the wish to avoid the costs incurred by full, three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations. The present contribution documents a fan model for fan–intake computations based on the solution of the double linearization problem for unsteady, transonic flow past a cascade of aerofoils with finite mean load. The computation of the flow in the intake is reduced to a steady problem, whereas the computation of the flow in the fan is reduced to one steady problem and a set of solutions of the linearized model in the frequency domain. The nature of the approximations introduced in the fan representation is such that numerical solutions can be computed inexpensively, while the main feature of the flow in the fan passage, namely the shock system and an approximation of the unsteady flow encountered by the fan are retained. The model is applied to a well-documented test case and compares favorably with much more expensive 3D, time-domain computations.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Curvilinear coordinate system along the blade streamlines

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Fig. 1

Flow arrangement in an intake operating at high incidence

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Fig. 5

Comparison of fan performance predictions from RANS and from the similarity model

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Fig. 8

Total pressure distribution at fan face for low and high incidence case

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Fig. 9

Isentropic Mach number on the center line at the bottom wall of the intake

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Fig. 10

Convergence of the Fourier series for the static pressure coefficients at fan face; (a) case A: lower incidence and (b) case B: higher incidence

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Fig. 11

Static pressure coefficient at fan face at several levels of span low incidence case A (α = 1 deg)

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Fig. 12

Static pressure coefficient at fan face at several levels of span. High incidence case B (α = 5 deg).

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Fig. 13

Amplitude (top) and phase (bottom) of the unsteady pressure on the blade surface for 1 EO and 2 EO disturbances, 90% span. Low incidence case A (α = 1 deg).

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Fig. 14

Amplitude (top) and phase (bottom) of the unsteady pressure on the blade surface for 1 EO and 2 EO disturbances, 90% span. High incidence case B (α = 5 deg).

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Fig. 3

Meridional view of the computational grids for fan passage: (a) similarity model (b) URANS

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Fig. 6

(a) Comparison of Cp distribution at 90% and (b) comparison of Cp distribution at 50%

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Fig. 7

Normalized DC60 as a function of incidence for an air intake operating in aspirated and powered configuration

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Fig. 4

(a) URANS–URANS and (b) RANS-SM

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